The Jesuit New World Order

Friday, 20 April 2012

THE PAPAL ORDERS
ORDERS AWARDED BY THE HOLY SEE OR FOUNDED BY PAPAL BULL
 

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His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI
Elected Supreme Pontiff 24 April 2005         
The Papal Orders are awarded in the name of the Supreme Pontiff and are given both as awards of His Holiness as Head of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Church and also as Sovereign of the Vatican City State. Membership at one time was conferred by Papal Bull, or by Apostolic Letter, signed by the Pope himself, but since the reforms made in the structure of these Orders at the beginning of the 20th century, the diplomas have been signed by the Cardinal Secretary of State. Since the 29 June 1991 this post has been filled by His Eminence Angelo, Cardinal Sodano. The categories below may be considered to embrace all the legitimate Roman Catholic Orders of Knighthood. See a history of the evolution of these Orders.
The Papal and Catholic Orders may be divided into several categories.
(1) Those Orders awarded directly by the Supreme Pontiff as head of the Catholic Church and the Vatican City State. These are generally called the Papal Orders. The highest, and most infrequently awarded, is the Supreme Order of Christ; the second is the equally rarely given Order of the Golden Spur, the third is the Order of Pius IX (Pian Order or Ordine Piano), the fourth is the Order of Saint Gregory the Great, and the fourth is the Order of Saint Sylvester Pope and Martyr. Awards of the Orders of Christ and the Golden Spur at made at the express wish of His Holiness the Pope, in consultation with the Cardinal Secretary of State. Awards of the Ordine Piano are made either to Heads of State and senior members of their household at the time of official visits to the Holy See, to senior members of the Diplomatic Missions accredited to the Holy See and, exceptionally, to those who have particularly served the Holy Father personally or the Holy See, at the discretion of the Cardinal Secretary of State. Awards of the latter two Orders are generally made on the recommendation of Diocesan Bishops, or of Apostolic Nuncios. There are National Associations of Papal Knights in France, Great Britain and the United States, as well as Diocesan Associations such as those in Milan and Los Angeles.
(2) Those Orders of Chivalry directly under Papal protection. These are today the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Malta, and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher. These Orders are under the protection of His Holiness as Supreme Pontiff and are not considered to be awards of the Vatican State. Indeed, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a Sovereign independent entity in International Law which enjoys mutual diplomatic relations with sixty-seven Sovereign States, in addition to being an Observer Member of the United Nations. The Order was founded in the late 11th century but became a Religious Military Order by a Bull of Pope Paschal II of 1113. The Grand Master, presently His Most Eminent Highness Fra' Andrew Bertie, is elected by the professed, religious members of the Order, and serves for life, or until his abdication (only two Grand Masters in history have ever abdicated). Elections of the Grand Master must be approved by the Supreme Pontiff as the religious superior of the Order, who also appoints a Cardinal patron and a Prelate of the Order.
The Grand Master of the Order of the Order of the Holy Sepulcher, however, is appointed directly by the Pope and serves during his pleasure or until such time as he may wish to lay down this office. The Patriarch of Jerusalem is, ex officio, Grand Prior of the Order, while the lay head is the Governor-General (presently Ambassador Count Ludovico Carducci Artenisio). The Knights of the Holy Sepulcher were reorganized as an Order of Knighthood in 1847; the present Cardinal Grand Master is His Eminence Carlo Cardinal Furno, appointed in January 1996.
(3) Those Orders which were founded by Papal Bull, whose membership is limited exclusively to Roman Catholics, which require obligations of service according to Catholic teaching and which generally have a governing body which administers the Order on behalf of the Grand Master. The first of these, the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, is in the unique position of having had Cardinal Protectors appointed directly by the Holy See until the "temporary suspension" of this post in 1924 (as of yet not reinstated). Its Grand Magistery is hereditary by virtue of the Apostolic Letter Sincerae Fidei of 1699 and the Bull Militantis Ecclesiae, which invested it in the person of Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma, and his heirs. The present Grand Master, XIth in succession from Francesco Farnese, is HRH the Infante of Spain Don Carlos de Borbón-Dos Sicilias y Borbón-Parma, Duke of Calabria, who succeeded in 1964. There is a Grand Prior, presently an Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church (presently the Most Reverend Monsignor Bruno B. Heim).
The four Spanish Military Orders of Santiago, Calatrava, Alcántara and Montesa have a Prior of the Order who, as Bishop of Ciudad Real, is nominated by the Holy See (and whose appointment is listed in the Annuario Pontificio). The hereditary Perpetual Administrator on Behalf of the Holy See (and Grand Master) of the four Orders since 1975 has been HM King Juan Carlos I of Spain; the President of the Council is HRH the Infante of Spain Don Carlos, Duke of Calabria.
The Sacred Military Order of Saint Stephen (of Tuscany) is a dynastic Order of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine-Tuscany whose statutes have been recently reformed, reaffirming its Catholicity and the annual ceremonies are now once again held in the ancient Priory Church in Pisa. The Order was founded in 1561 and it was accorded its status as an Order under Papal protection by the Bull His, quae pro Religionis propagatione of 1562. The hereditary Grand Magistery is invested in the person of the Head of the House of Habsburg-Tuscany, presently HIRH Archduke Sigismond of Austria, who succeeded in 1994.
The Royal Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Immaculate Conception, a dynastic Order of the Royal House of Bavaria, is likewise still maintained as an exclusively Roman Catholic military Order but is exclusively limited to male Bavarians of the ancient nobility. It was founded in 1726 and confirmed by Papal Bull of 1728. The Grand Magistery is hereditary in the Royal House of Bavaria and is presently held by HRH Duke Franz of Bavaria, who succeeded his father in 1996.
(4) Those Orders which were founded or confirmed by Papal Bulls but which are Collar Orders given in one grade (that of Knight). In order of seniority by date of foundation these are (a) the Supreme Order of the Annunciation (Savoy-Italy), of which the hereditary Grand Master is HRH Crown Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Duke of Savoy, who succeeded in 1983.
(b) the Order of the Golden Fleece, of which the hereditary Sovereign is HM King Juan Carlos I of Spain, who succeeded in 1977.  
(c) the Order of the Holy Spirit (France, dormant) (d) the Order of Saint Michel (France, dormant), of which the succession to the Sovereignty is invested in the person of the Head of the Royal House of France.
(d) the Illustrious Royal Order of Saint Januarius, of which the hereditary Grand Master is HRH Infante of Spain Don Carlos, Duke of Calabria, who succeeded in 1964.
(5) The Teutonic Order which, although founded as Religious Military Order of Chivalry, since 1928 has been a purely Religious Order of Priests, Brothers and Sisters, with a category of twelve honorary knights and an unlimited number of associates, known as Marianer. Its headquarters are in Vienna.

Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem

Knights and Ladies with St. Mary\'s Pastor and fellow KnightKnights and Ladies from Sioux Falls area
Official Crest of the E.O.H.S.
The Knights and Ladies of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem visited St. Mary’s Church on Sunday evening for the celebration of Mass and dinner in the Queen of Peace Hall.  Mass was celebrated in the Ordinary Form, but all faced the altar for the Eucharistic Liturgy.  Holy Communion was received at the Communion Rail, in imitation of the practice of the Holy Father, Pope Benedict XVI.

The Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem can trace its origins to Godfrey de Bouillon of the first Crusade, who gathered around him a group of knights who were entrusted with the protection of the religious Chapter of Canons who were present at the Holy Sepulchre of Christ. For twenty years, these knights, and those who came to join their number, protected the Christian presence at the Holy Sepulchre, taking as their banner the red Jerusalem cross popularized by the crusading knights. By 1113, Pope Paschal II officially recognized their existence and purpose. It was not until 1122 that Pope Callistus II issued a bulla establishing them as a lay religious community with specific responsibilities of guarding the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre and the city of Jerusalem in defense of Christianity against Muslim attack.

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was established, and the knights of the Holy Sepulchre played an integral role in advancing peace in the territory. The Muslim attacks, however, did not cease, and defense of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre which was built by the earliest knights of the Order and still stands today, covering both the site of the crucifixion of Christ and His burial place became impossible.
The earliest band of knights fled to the city of Acre, to the fortress of St. John, where they were received by other groups of besieged crusaders. They remained there from 1245 until the great fortress fell to the Muslims in 1291, ending the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. A diaspora then took place among the Christians in Palestine. Many of the knights of the Holy Sepulchre remained in the Mediterranean basin; others fled as far as France and Spain. The works of the Order continued as far away as Poland, where knights had settled and later their descendants continued in the spirit of the defense of Christianity.
The activity of the Order, indeed its identity, in Palestine shifted from the knights, who returned to their own countries, to the religious Order of St. Francis, which had custody of the monastery of Mt. Zion. This group of Franciscans preserved the mission of the crusading knights of the Holy Sepulchre for centuries, mindful of the original bulla of appointment that entrusted the basilica, as well as the faithful, to the order’s protection.
In 1330, Pope John XXII named the prior of the Franciscan house Custodian of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. The custodian served as deputy to the pontiff, who reserved unto himself the governing authority of the Order, and yet, the custodians, in all effect, were responsible for all aspects of the Order’s growth and governance, including the calling of new knights.

In 1489, Pope Innocent VlII desired to suppress the Order and decreed that it was to be merged with the Order of St. John (Malta). For seven years, the two lived an uneasy, yet peaceful, union. In 1496, lnnocent’s successor, Pope Alexander VI, recognized the folly of this uneasy merger and restored the Holy Sepulchre to independent status. Alexander VI decreed that the Order of the Holy Sepulchre would no longer be governed by the office of custodian and further decreed that the senior post of the Order would henceforth be raised to the rank of Grand Master, reserving this title for himself and his successors of the See of Peter.

The darkest period of the order’s history began shortly after the pontificate of Alexander VI, when little is recorded of its work or activity. Throughout this prolonged era, with the blessing of the Holy See, the Franciscans of the Holy Land continued to welcome into the Order, under the emblem of the red Jerusalem cross, men of great faith and strength of character always willing to defend the faith, even to the shedding of their blood, and to death when necessary.
It was not until 1847, after four hundred years of vacancy, that the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem was restored and, with it, the Order of the Holy Sepulchre rose from its dormancy, from a period of occasional growth to its revitalization under the pontificate of Pope Pius IX. The ecclesiastical superior of the Order was then vested in the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, who eventually assumed the title Grand Prior. The office of Grand Master still remained vested in the papacy.
In keeping with the customs of the royal houses of Europe prevalent at that time, Pius IX undertook a restructuring of all papal honors, which included the restructuring of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre so that it was more closely linked to the papacy and more formalized and uniform in structure. For twenty years, form 1847 to 1867, Pius IX fostered the growth of the order throughout Europe.He removed the requirement that a knight be invested in Jerusalem. He also encouraged a structure to form, with both an ecclesiastical and jurisdictional hierarchy, so that investiture and other works of the Order could take place throughout the world.
Continuing to care for the rebirth of the Order, Pius IX, in 1868, redefined the new classes or ranks of membership in the Order, to that of Grand Cross, Commander, and Knight. In 1888, Leo XIII permitted the Holy Sepulchre to confer membership upon ladies of “society and noble birth,” the first international Order so to do. Ladies were welcome in each of the classes of membership without prejudice. Actually, the first female member was the Contessa Maria Francesca di Tomas, who received the rank of Grand Cross in 1871, predating the official” welcome of female members by seventeen years.
In an attempt to assert its own unique identity in the world, the membership of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre petitioned the Holy Father (Pius XI) to nullify the terms identifying the order as military and sacred, seeking a conferred sovereign status. The Holy See was neither prepared nor capable of doing so, as the Order did not enjoy diplomatic sovereign status. Agreeing that the appellation “sacred and military” was commonly used by chivalric societies not closely linked to the Holy See, Plus XI conferred in their place the appellation “equestrian.” At present, the full title of the order remains The Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem.
In the first few decades of the twentieth century, the senior leadership position of the Order was held by the reigning pontiff. The offices of Grand Master, Protector, and Custodian were used interchangeably, albeit incorrectly, by historians and members alike, when referring to the Latin Patriarch’s role in the governance of the Order. During this period of time, Pius IX intended the title Grand Master to be reserved for the papacy, a political move that linked the Order personally to the pope without the order becoming assimilated into the Holy See’s own honors system. The role of Grand Prior, which had supplanted that of Custodian, was vested in the person of the restored Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. Pope Plus X, in a post-risorgimento posture, inserted an additional level of administration into the Order’s structure as he was now in a self-imposed Vatican exile. The office of Cardinal-Protector was established to facilitate the Order’s work in and around Rome in lieu of the pontiff, who remained behind the Vatican walls.
 In 1949, Eugene Pacelli, Pope Pius XII, restructured the Order once again and relinquished for himself and his successors the title and post of Grand Master, vesting it in the person of a Cardinal-Protector, no longer necessary in a post-Lateran Concordat world, was placed in abeyance.
Pius XII additionally bestowed the ancient fifteenth-century palace of Giuliano Cardinal della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, as headquarters of the Equestrian Order. Officially known as the Palazzo dei Penitenzieri, it was built by julius’s ancestor Domenico Cardinal Della Povere between 1480 and 1490. It was built to resemble the much admired Palazzo Venezia. It took its name from the Jesuits, who, after jullus’s pontificate, occupied it as their Poman headquarters. As they were the penitentiaries (or confessors) at St. Peter’s, the Palazzo took that name. After the Lateran pacts were sealed, Mussolini attempted many gestures to warm relations with the new Vatican City State. One such gesture was the demolition of a width of 150 yards of the city of Pome, between the Square of St. Peter’s and the Tiber Piver, known as the Borghl, in order to cut a broad boulevard, a la Parisienne, as a ceremonial entrance into the Vatican. Named via della Conciliazione this new broad boulevard was created by demolishing hundreds of ancient buildings and palaces. After its completion, the new facade on either side of the new boulevard revealed that which was formerly well hidden: the palaces and shops of Renaissance Rome. One such “hidden” palace was that of Julius II, the Palazzo dei Penitenzieri. Today, it is best known as the Hotel Columbus, fronting the via della Conciliazone on the left as one prepares to enter St. Peter’s Square. The headquarters of the Order are housed in this palace, a part of which was set aside as a hotel to earn income for the Order and to house pilgrim knights. The offices, chancellery, and residence of the Grand Master are housed here. The church of the order is the very small, ancient Chapel of St. Humphrey (S. Onofrio), under the care of the Franciscans of Mt. Zion, adjacent to the Bambino Gesú Hospital and the Pontifical North American College on the janiculum Hill above the Vatican.
The new constitution of the Order was promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1977, and the Order now enjoys protection under canon law. This constitution clearly sets forth the reasons for its continued existence:
The Order relives in a modern manner the spirit and ideal of the Crusades, with the arms of faith, of the apostolate, and of Christian charity. To this end the Order (a) fosters in its members the practice of the Christian ltfe; (b) is zealous for the preservation and spread of thefaith in Palestine; (c) champions the defense of the rights of the Catholic Church in the Holy Land, the cradle of the Order.
The Equestrian Order has grown tremendously in defense of the Faith during the twentieth century. With a strong allegiance to the papacy, serving it as soldiers of Christ, the members of the Order are linked to the Church in a unique way, carrying with membership in the Order a responsibility of faithful witness, as well as the dignity of being in the service of the papacy.
The Order now comprises five classes: Knights of the Collar, a rank established by Plus XII in 1949. There are twelve in number; Knights Grand Cross; Commanders with Star, who are also called Grand Officers, an honor given for special merit; Commanders; simply Knights. Female honorees hold the same ranks or classes but are known as Dame or Lady of (rank), depending on the local custom. It is more correct, from a protocol posture, to refer to female members as Dames of (rank); however, local practices have established the customs for each Jurisdiction.
Finally, unlike some chivalric orders whose membership is open to non-Catholics (even the papal) and, in some cases, non-Christians alike, the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre is reserved solely for practicing Roman Catholics. It is precisely that faith that bonds them so closely to the Sovereign Pontiff. The investiture ceremony itself requires the pledge of defense of the Faith with a Profession of Faith, which, of course, only the Catholic faithful could undertake.

Order of the Golden Fleece
Orden del Toisón de Oro

Ordre de la Toison d'Or

Orden vom Goldenen Vlies
Weltliche Schatzkammer Wien (216)b.JPG
Chain of the Order of the Golden Fleece (shown in the Schatzkammer in Vienna)
Awarded by the King of Spain
& Head of House of Habsburg
Motto Pretium Laborum Non Vile
Non Aliud
Awarded for At the monarch's pleasure
Status Currently constituted
Sovereign Juan Carlos I of Spain
Karl von Habsburg
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight/Lady
Established 1430 (see History)
Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, with the collar of the Order (portrait in c.1450 by Rogier van der Weyden)
The Order of the Golden Fleece (Dutch: Orde van het Gulden Vlies; French: Ordre de la Toison d'Or; German: Orden vom Goldenen Vlies; Italian: Ordine del Toson d'Oro; Spanish: Orden del Toisón de Oro) is an order of chivalry founded in Bruges by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Infanta Isabella of Portugal, daughter of King John I of Portugal. It evolved as one of the most prestigious orders in Europe. Today there exist two branches of the Order: the Spanish and the Austrian Fleece; the current sovereigns are respectively Juan Carlos I, King of Spain, and Karl von Habsburg, grandson of Emperor Charles I of Austria.

Contents

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[edit] Origin

The Order of the Golden Fleece was established January 10, 1430, by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in celebration of the prosperous and wealthy domains united in his person that ran from Flanders to Switzerland. It is restricted to a limited number of knights, initially 24 but increased to 30 in 1433, and 50 in 1516, plus the sovereign.[1] It received further privileges unusual to any order of knighthood: the sovereign undertook to consult the order before going to war; all disputes between the knights were to be settled by the order; at each chapter the deeds of each knight were held in review, and punishments and admonitions were dealt out to offenders, and to this the sovereign was expressly subject; the knights could claim as of right to be tried by their fellows on charges of rebellion, heresy and treason, and Charles V conferred on the order exclusive jurisdiction over all crimes committed by the knights; the arrest of the offender had to be by warrant signed by at least six knights, and during the process of charge and trial he remained not in prison but in the gentle custody of his fellow knights. The order, conceived in an ecclesiastical spirit in which mass and obsequies were prominent and the knights were seated in choirstalls like canons,[2] was explicitly denied to "heretics", and so became an exclusively Catholic award during the Reformation.
Baudouin de Lannoy, c. 1435, one of the first Knights of the Golden Fleece, inducted in 1430

The Order of the Golden Fleece was defended from possible accusations of prideful pomp by the Burgundian court poet Michault Taillevent, who asserted that it was instituted:

Non point pour jeu ne pour esbatement, Mais à la fin que soit attribuée
Loenge à Dieu trestout premièrement

Et aux bons gloire et haulte renommée.


Translated into English:[3]
Not for amusement nor for recreation, But for the purpose that praise shall be given to God,
In the very first place,

And to the good, glory and high renown.

The choice of the Golden Fleece of Georgian Kingdom of Colchis as the symbol of a Christian order caused some controversy, not so much because of its pagan context, which could be incorporated in chivalric ideals, as in the Nine Worthies, but because the feats of Jason, familiar to all, were not without causes of reproach, expressed in anti-Burgundian terms by Alain Chartier in his Ballade de Fougères instancing Jason "qui pour emportrer la toison De Colcos se veult parjurer".[4] The bishop of Châlons, chancellor of the Order, rescued the fleece's reputation by identifying it instead with the fleece of Gideon that received the dew of Heaven.[5]
The badge of the Order, in the form of a sheepskin, was suspended from a jewelled collar of firesteels in the shape of the letter B, for Burgundy, linked by flints; with the motto "Pretium Laborum Non Vile" ("Not a bad reward for labour") engraved on the front of the central link, and Philip's motto "Non Aliud" ("I will have no other") on the back (non-royal knights of the Golden Fleece were forbidden to belong to any other order of knighthood).

[edit] Habsburg Order

With the absorption of the Burgundian lands into the Habsburg empire, the sovereignty of the Order passed to the Habsburg kings of Spain, where it remained until the death of the last of the Spanish Habsburgs, Charles II, in 1700. He was succeeded as king by Philip V, a Bourbon. The dispute between Philip and the Habsburg pretender to the Spanish throne, the Archduke Charles, led to the War of the Spanish Succession, and also resulted in the division of the Order into Spanish and Austrian branches. In either case the sovereign, as Duke of Burgundy, writes the letter of appointment in French.

[edit] Spanish Order

The Duke of Wellington wearing the Spanish Fleece
Prince Albert wearing the Spanish Fleece in 1842
The Spanish Order of the Fleece has been a source of controversy in the past, particularly during the Napoleonic period. The award of the Order to Napoleon and his brother Joseph angered the exiled King of France, Louis XVIII, and caused him to return his collar in protest. These, and other awards by Joseph, were revoked by King Ferdinand on the restoration of Bourbon rule in 1813.
In 1812 the acting government of Spain awarded the order to the Duke of Wellington, an act confirmed by Ferdinand on his resumption of power, with the approval of Pope Pius VII. Wellington therefore became the first Protestant to be awarded the Golden Fleece. It has subsequently also been awarded to non-Christians, like Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand.
There was another crisis in 1833 when Isabella II became Queen of Spain in defiance of Salic Law. Her right to award the Fleece was challenged by Spanish Carlists.[citation needed]
Sovereignty remained with the head of the Spanish house of Bourbon during the republican (1931–39) and Francoist (1939–1975) periods and is held today by the present King of Spain, Juan Carlos.
Knights of the Order are entitled to be addressed with the style His/Her Excellency in front of their name.[6]

[edit] Living members of the order

Below a list of the names of the living knights and ladies, in chronologic order and with between brackets the date when they were inducted into the Order:
  1. The King of Spain (1941) - Sovereign of the Order since 1977
  2. The Duke of Calabria (1964)
  3. The King of the Hellenes (1964)
  4. The Prince of Asturias (1981)
  5. The King of Sweden (1983)
  6. Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1983)
  7. The Emperor of Japan (1985)
  8. The Queen of the Netherlands (1985)
  9. The Queen of Denmark (1985)
  10. The Queen of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth Realms (1988)
  11. The King of the Belgians (1994)
  12. The King of Norway (1995)
  13. The Tsar of the Bulgarians (2004)[7]
  14. The King of Thailand (2006)
  15. The Grand Duke of Luxembourg (2007)[8]
  16. The Duke of Suárez (2007)[9]
  17. The King of Saudi Arabia (2007)[10]
  18. Javier Solana (2010)[11]
  19. Víctor García de la Concha (2010)[12]
  20. Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the French Republic and Co-Prince of Andorra (2011) [13]

[edit] Austrian Order

Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria as Grand Master of the Fleece
Neck Chain of the Herald of the Order.
The Austrian Order did not suffer from the political difficulties of the Spanish, remaining an award solely for Catholic royals and nobles. The problem of female inheritance was avoided on the accession of Maria Theresa in 1740 as sovereignty of the Order passed not to herself but to her husband, Francis.
Upon the collapse of the Austrian monarchy after the First World War, King Albert I of Belgium requested that the sovereignty and treasure of the Order be transferred to him as the ruler of the former Habsburg lands of Burgundy. This claim was seriously considered by the victorious allies at Versailles but was eventually rejected due to the intervention of King Alfonso XIII of Spain, who took possession of the property of the Order on behalf of the dethroned emperor, Charles I of Austria. Sovereignty remains with the head of the house of Habsburg, which was handed over in 2007 by Otto von Habsburg to his eldest son, Karl von Habsburg.

[edit] Living members of the order

Below a list of the names of the living knights, in chronological order and with between brackets the date when they were inducted into the Order:
  1. Archduke Heinrich of Austria (1955)
  2. Archduke Franz Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany (1958)
  3. Archduke Joseph Arpád of Austria (1960)
  4. The Duke of Bavaria (1960)
  5. Count Johann Larisch of Moennich (1960)
  6. Archduke Karl of Austria (1960) - Sovereign of the Order since 2000
  7. Archduke Andreas Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany (1961)
  8. Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany (1961)
  9. Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este (1961)
  10. Archduke Michael Koloman of Austria (1961)
  11. Archduke Michael Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany (1961)
  12. Archduke Georg of Austria (1961)
  13. Archduke Carl Christian of Austria (1961)
  14. Archduke Joseph of Austria (1961)
  15. The King of the Belgians (1961)
  16. Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1961)
  17. Renaud, Viscount of Chabot-Tramecourt (1961)
  18. Prince Albrecht of Hohenberg (1961)
  19. The Duke of Württemberg (1961)
  20. The Margrave of Meissen (1961)
  21. The Prince of Lobkowicz (1961)
  22. Count Johann of Hoyos-Sprinzenstein (1961)
  23. The Prince of Waldburg-Zeil and Trauchberg (1961)
  24. The Prince of Liechtenstein (1961)
  25. Prince Clemens of Altenburg (1961)
  26. The Duke of Braganza (1961)
  27. Count Joseph of Neipperg (1961)
  28. The Duke of Hohenberg (1961)
  29. The Prince of Schwarzenberg (1961)
  30. Archduke Joseph of Austria (1961)
  31. The Prince of Khevenhüller-Metsch (1961)
  32. The Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg (1961)
  33. Count Gottfried of Czernin of Chudenitz (1961)
  34. The Prince of Orsini-Rosenberg (1961)
  35. The Prince of Windisch-Grätz (1961)
  36. Olivier, Count of Ormesson (1961)
  37. Baron Johann Friedrich of Solemacher-Antweiler (1961)
  38. Baron Nicolas Adamovich de Csepin (1961)
  39. Count Alexander of Pachta-Reyhofen (1961) - Chancellor of the Order
  40. Christoph Cardinal Schönborn, Archbishop of Vienna (1961) - Chaplain of the Order
  41. Baron Wulf Gordian of Hauser (1961) - Treasurer of the Order
  42. Count Philipp of Clam-Martinic (1961) - Registrar of the Order
  43. Count Karl-Albrecht of Waldstein-Wartenberg (1961) - Herald of the Order
  44. The Prince of Panagyurishte (2002)[14]
  45. The Duke of Brabant (2008)
  46. The Prince of Ligne (2011)
  47. Prince Charles-Louis de Merode (2011)

[edit] See also

World Orders of Knighthood & Merit

Guy Stair Sainty, Editor
Rafal Heydel-Mankoo
, Deputy Editor
www.exacteditions.com/burkespeerage/wokm

Burke’s Peerage is delighted to announce our new digital edition of the definitive study of the extant Orders of Knighthood and merit of every state. World Orders of Knighthood & Merit is widely accepted as one of the most important works ever produced on the subject and will remain the definitive guide for many years to come. This 2,100 page full-colour book is of great interest to academics, historians, collectors, monarchists, heraldry enthusiasts and those who are members of any of the numerous international, noble and state Orders. Each Order’s foundation date, purpose, structure, investiture details, officers and membership requirements are listed along with precise descriptions of the insignia. This lavishly illustrated full-colour publication contains colour illustrations of the uniforms, robes and insignia as well as many photographs and paintings of Order-related places and people, diplomas, armorial bearings and ceremonies of investiture.
World Orders of Knighthood & Merit is available to individuals, organisations and libraries. Users of subscribing UK Public Libraries can access it both within the library and remotely on their home computers. The book is also accessible on the iPhone, iPod touch and iPad using the built-in browser or the free Exactly application.
Free search of the entire book at www.exacteditions.com/burkespeerage/wokm



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Temple Church

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Temple Church

The Temple Church in 1892, by Herbert Railton

Country England
Denomination Church of England
The Temple Church is a late-12th-century church in London located between Fleet Street and the River Thames, built for and by the Knights Templar as their English headquarters. In modern times, two Inns of Court (Inner Temple and Middle Temple) both use the church. It is famous for its effigy tombs and for being a round church. It was heavily damaged during the Second World War but has been largely restored. The area around the Temple Church is known as the Temple and nearby is Temple Bar and Temple tube station.

Contents

 [hide

[edit] History

[edit] Construction

In the mid 12th century, before the construction of the church, the Knights Templar in London had met at a site in High Holborn in a structure originally established by Hughes de Payens (the site had been historically the location of a Roman temple in Londinium). Because of the rapid growth of the order, by the 1160s the site had become too confined, and the Order purchased the current site for the establishment of a larger monastic complex as their headquarters in England. In addition to the church, the new compound originally contained residences, military training facilities, and recreational grounds for the military brethren and novices, who were not permitted to go into the city without the permission of the Master of the Temple.
The church building comprises two separate sections. The original nave section, called the Round Church, and an adjoining rectangular section, built approximately half a century later, called the Chancel. In keeping with the traditions of the order, the nave of the church was constructed on a round design based on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. The nave is 55 feet in diameter, and is surrounded by the first-ever free-standing dark Purbeck Marble columns. It is probable that the walls and grotesque heads were originally painted in colours.
It was consecrated on February 10, 1185[1] in a ceremony by Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem. It is believed that Henry II was present at the consecration.

[edit] 1185–1307

The Knights Templar order was very powerful in England, with the Master of the Temple sitting in parliament as primus baro (the first baron of the realm). The compound was regularly used as a residence by kings and by legates of the Pope. The Temple also served as an early depository bank, sometimes in defiance of the Crown's wishes to seize the funds of nobles who had entrusted their wealth there. The independence and wealth of the order throughout Europe is considered by most historians to have been the primary cause of its eventual downfall.
In January 1215 William Marshall (who is buried in the nave next to his sons, under one of the 9 marble effigies of medieval knights there) served as a negotiator during a meeting in the Temple between King John and the barons, who demanded that John uphold the rights enshrined the Coronation Charter of his predecessor Richard I. William swore on behalf of the king that the grievances of the barons would be addressed in the summer, leading to John's signing of Magna Carta in June.
William later became regent during the reign of John's son, Henry III. Henry later expressed a desire to be buried in the church and so, in the early 13th century, the choir of the original church was pulled down and a new larger structure, now called the Chancel, was built. It was consecrated on Ascension Day 1240 and comprises a central aisle and two side aisles of identical width. The height of the vault is 36 feet 3 inches. One of Henry's sons, who died in infancy, is buried in the Chancel, but Henry later altered his will with instructions to be interred in Westminster Abbey.

[edit] Crown seizure

After the destruction and abolition of the Knights Templar in 1307, Edward II took control of the church as a Crown possession. It was later given to the Knights Hospitaller, who rented the Temple to two colleges of lawyers. One college moved into the part of the Temple previously used by the Temple's knights, and the other into the part previously used by its priests, and they shared the use of the church. The colleges evolved into the Inner and Middle Temples, two of the four Inns of Court (the other two being Lincoln's Inn and Gray's Inn).

[edit] 16th–19th centuries


The interior of the Round Church in the early 19th century.
In 1540, the church became the property of The Crown once again when Henry VIII abolished the Knights Hospitaller in England and confiscated their property. Henry provided a priest for the church under the former title "Master of the Temple". In the 1580s, the church was the scene of the Battle of the Pulpits, a theological conflict between the Puritans and supporters of the Elizabethan Compromise. At that time, William Shakespeare also knew it and hence, in his play Henry VI, part 1, it and the Temple garden feature as the setting for the fictional scene of the plucking of two roses and the start of the 15th century Wars of the Roses. In 2002, this was commemorated with the planting of new white and red roses in the modern gardens.
Following a later agreement in 1608 by James I, the two Inns were granted the use of the church in perpetuity, and continue to use the Temple as their chapel, on condition that they supported and maintained the church.
The church was undamaged by the Great Fire of London in 1666. Nevertheless, it was refurbished by Christopher Wren, who made extensive modifications to the interior, including an altar screen and the introduction of an organ to the church for the first time. The church was restored in 1841 by Smirke and Burton, who decorated the walls and ceiling in the high Victorian Gothic style, in an attempt to bring the church back to its original appearance. Further restoration work was executed by James Piers St Aubyn in 1862.

An 1827 woodcut of The Temple Church.

[edit] Second World War

On May 10, 1941, a German air raid of incendiary bombs set the roof of the Round Church on fire,[2] and the fire quickly spread to the nave and chapel. The organ and all the wood parts of the church, including the Victorian renovations, were destroyed and the dark Purbeck marble columns of the Chancel cracked from the intense heat. Although these columns still supported the vault, they were deemed unsound and replaced by replicas. The original columns had a light outward lean, an architectural quirk which was duplicated in the replacement columns.
During the renovation by the architect Walter Godfrey, it was discovered that the renovations made by Wren in the 17th century were in storage and they were replaced in their original position. The church was rededicated in November 1958.[3]
The church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950.[4]

[edit] Use


The Temple Church today.
Among other purposes, the structure was originally used for Templar initiation ceremonies. In England, the ceremony involved new recruits entering the Temple via the western door at dawn. The initiates would enter the circular nave, and then take monastic vows of piety, chastity, poverty and obedience. The details of initiation at the time were a closely guarded secret, though this secrecy later caused trouble as gossip and rumours spread about possible Templar blasphemy. These suspicions were manipulated and expanded by the Order's enemies, such as King Philip IV of France.
Today the Temple Church holds regular church services, including Holy Communion and Mattins on Sunday morning.[5] It also holds weddings, but only for members of the Inner and Middle Temples. The Temple Church serves both the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple as a private chapel.
The Temple Church has always been a peculiar, and the choristers have the privilege of wearing scarlet cassocks as a result. This means that it is subject to the jurisdiction of the Crown,[6] and not of the Bishop of London. Modern-day relations with the Bishop of London are, however, very good; he regularly attends events and services at the Temple Church. The Bishop of London is also ex officio the Dean of the Chapels Royal.

Marble effigies of medieval knights in the Temple Church.

[edit] In The Da Vinci Code

The church was featured in the controversial popular novel The Da Vinci Code by American author Dan Brown and was also used as a location in The Da Vinci Code film.[7] The release of doves in the round church in the film relate to Ernest Lough's (the most famous boy soprano to come from Temple Church) recording of "O for the wings of a dove".
Recent lunchtime talks by the present Master (Reverend Robin Griffith-Jones) have been on the subject of the Templars and the church's role in the novel, and he has published a book on the same topic.

[edit] Music at the Temple Church


The organ in the Temple Church.
The church offers regular choral music performances and organ recitals. A choir in the English cathedral tradition was established at the Temple Church in 1842 under the direction of Dr. E. J. Hopkins, and it soon earned a high reputation.[8]

In 1927, the Temple Choir under George Thalben-Ball became world famous with its recording of Mendelssohn's Hear my Prayer, including the solo "O for the Wings of a Dove" sung by Ernest Lough. This became one of the most popular recordings of all time by a church choir, and it sold strongly throughout the twentieth century, reaching gold disc status (a million copies) in 1962 and achieving an estimated 6 million sales to date.

The Temple Church's excellent acoustics have also attracted secular musicians: Sir John Barbirolli recorded a famous performance of the Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis by Ralph Vaughan Williams there in 1962 (at the suggestion of Bernard Herrmann), and Paul Tortelier made his recording of the complete Bach Cello Suites there in April 1982.
The choir continues to record, broadcast and perform, in addition to its regular services at the Temple Church. It is an all-male choir, consisting of 18 boys who are all educated on generous scholarships (most of the boys attend the City of London School although the scholarship is portable) and 12 professional men. They perform weekly at Sunday services, 11:15-12:15 PM, during term time. The choir gave the world premiere of Sir John Tavener's epic "The Veil of the Temple", which took place over seven hours during an overnight vigil in the Temple Church in 2003. The following year it was performed by the choir at the Lincoln Festival in New York; a concert version was performed at the BBC Proms the same year. Two new recordings were released in 2010 on the Signum Classics label: one of the Temple Church Choir, and a recording of English organ music played by James Vivian. Both were critically acclaimed.
In December 2011, a new recording of the choir on the Signum Classics label will be available from the church (on official release in January 2012). The CD will contain musical settings of the Psalms by Allegri, Bernstein, Byrd, Parry, Purcell and Wesley. For more information, please refer to the official websites below.

[edit] Organ

The church contains two organs: a chamber organ built by Robin Jennings in 2001, and a four manual Harrison & Harrison organ. A current specification of the organ can be found on the Temple Church Choir website.
The Harrison organ will be completely renovated from July 2011 until Easter 2013. It will be removed from the organ chamber and will be thoroughly repaired and cleaned by Harrison & Harrison. A temporary organ has been installed for the duration of the work. For more details of the work or of the Organ Appeal, please visit The Temple Church Choir website.

[edit] List of organists

It has had a number of famous organists, including
  • Francis Pigott 1688 - 1704
  • John Pigott 1704 - 1737 (from 1729 for Middle Temple only)
Inner Temple
Middle Temple
  • John Pigott 1729 - 1737
  • James Vincent 1737 - 1749
  • John Jones 1749 - 1796
  • Emily Dowding 1796 - 1814
(from 1814 for both Inner and Middle Temple)

[edit] Master of the Temple

The church always has two clergy, called the "Master of the Temple" and the "Reader of the Temple" respectively. The title of the Master of the Temple recalls the title of the head of the former order of the Knights Templar. The present Master of the Temple is the Reverend Robin Griffith-Jones, appointed in 1999. The Master gives regular lunchtime talks open to the public.
The official title of the Master of the Temple is the "Reverend and Valiant Master of the Temple";[9] this is not used on the Who's Who page of the official website or the Services page, but is confirmed by the Middle Temple website (see [1]), and has been used by the current Master in interviews (see [2] and [3]).

[edit] List of recent Masters of the Temple

[edit] Buried in the church



HISTORY OF THE PAPAL ORDERS
FOR THE LATEST ON THE PAPAL ORDERS, SEE BURKE'S PEERAGE AND GENTRY WORLD ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD AND MERIT, purchase at www.exacteditions.com/burkespeerage/wokm
© Guy Stair Sainty

The Holy See has awarded the distinction of knighthood since the early medieval period. Such honors originally conferred nobility, personal or hereditary according to the rank, but today the Papal Orders are a means by which the Holy Father might personally distinguish those who have particularly served the Church and society. The crosses of the Papal Orders are visible marks of recognition and mirror the awards made by most states to their citizens and others for public and private services. The present Pontiff, Pope John Paul II, has extended membership in the Pian Order, Saint Gregory the Great and Saint Sylvester to ladies as well as gentlemen. Nominations for appointment to the Papal Orders are generally made by parish priests to the local Ordinary who, after due consideration, may forward the recommendation to the Papal Secretariat of State. Recommendations are also made by Apostolic Nuncios in post and by senior members of the Papal Curia. A tax is charged in respect of each nomination to cover the expenses thereof, which is the liability of the nominator but normally payable by the recipient.
There is no surviving documentary evidence of a precise foundation date of the earliest Papal Chivalric institution, the Golden Militia, now represented by the second of the Papal Orders, that of the Golden Spur. However, the superior authority of the Holy See as a source of honor was first acknowledged by the Crusader knights who formed the Templar and Hospitaller Orders in the early twelfth century. The highest Papal Order, the Order of Christ, was last awarded in 1987 to the late Frà Angelo de Mojana, 77th Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, to honor him on the 25th anniversary of his election. Instituted in 1318 by King Denis I of Portugal as a Military Religious Order, the then Pope, John XXII, reserved the right for him and his successors to appoint knights. By 1522, the Order was effectively divided and, while the Portuguese decoration became increasingly widely distributed, the Papal distinction gradually fell into disuse until being revived as the highest Order of Chivalry of the Roman Church in 1878. It is awarded exclusively to male Catholic Sovereigns or Heads of State. There are presently no living members.
The second highest Order, that of the Golden Spur, was formed into a high award of Merit in 1841, as the Order of Saint Sylvester and the Golden Militia, until the reforms of the Papal Orders in 1905 limited it to one hundred knights, as the Order of the Golden Militia. A further reform of 1966, limiting it to Christian Sovereigns and Heads of State, still described it in the Papal Bull as the Order of the Golden Militia, but the Annuario Pontificio describes it as the Order of the Golden Spur (Golden Militia).
The third, and more commonly awarded Order (although generally fewer than seventy awards are made annually world-wide), is the Order of Pius IX. An Order of Pian knights was founded by Pius IV in about 1560, but this fell into disuse and the present Order, instituted by Pius IX in 1847, may be regarded as a new foundation. There have been several reforms of the Statutes and today the highest rank is the gold Collar of the Order, the most common award to Heads of State on the occasion of official visits to the Holy See. The Grand Cross, the highest Papal award given to lay men and women, is also given to Ambassadors accredited to the Holy See after two years in post, and to leading Catholics in the wider world for particular services, mainly in the international field and particularly for outstanding deeds for Church and society. The next rank is that of Knight (and now Dame) Commander, to whom the Star (the same as worn by the Grand Crosses) may be given as a higher distinction. The lowest rank is that of Knight or Dame. It is awarded to Catholics and non-Catholics and, on occasion, to non-Christians.
The fourth Order but, of those now awarded, effectively the second, is that of Saint Gregory the Great. Founded in 1831, its grades now mirror those of the Pian Order but without the rank of Collar, while since 1834 it has had civil and military divisions. Like all the Papal Orders, it was reformed in 1905, and is given for conspicuous service to the Church and society, regardless of religious allegiance. The fifth Order is that of Saint Sylvester Pope, separated from that of the Golden Militia in 1905, and established with the same ranks as Saint Gregory. It is intended to award laymen who are active in the Apostolate, particularly in the exercise of their professional duties and mastership of the different arts. It is also conferred on non-Catholics, but more rarely than Saint Gregory.
Each of these Orders have their own particular decorations. In the three Orders presently awarded, the Pian Order, Saint Gregory and Saint Sylvester, knights and dames wear the badge suspended from a ribbon on the left breast. Knight Commanders wear the badge on a ribbon around the neck, while Dames wear it from a bow on the left breast; those decorated with the Star wear it on the lower left breast, and Grand Crosses wear the badge suspended from a broad ribbon over the right shoulder across to the left hip along with the breast star. The ribbon of the Pian Order is a dark blue with two scarlet stripes on each side; that of Saint Gregory is a red ribbon with a broad orange stripe at either side; that of Saint Sylvester is black with three narrow red stripes, two on each side and one in the center. The cross of the Pian Order is a gold star with eight blue enameled rays and the words ORDO PIANO on a white enamel and gold medallion ensigned in the center. The cross of Saint Gregory is an eight pointed "Maltese" cross in gold with red enamel and gold balls on the end of each point, ensigned with a gold medallion bearing the image of Saint Gregory and the words Pro Deo et Principe on the reverse; the badge of the civil division is surmounted by a green enamel laurel wreath, the military division by a trophy of arms in gold. The cross of Saint Sylvester is similar to Saint Gregory but with white enamel, and the image of Saint Sylvester on a gold medallion surrounded by gold rays between the arms of the cross. Each also have their own military style uniforms, whose design was regulated in the 1905 reforms. That of the Pian Order is dark blue, with a red collar and cuffs decorated with gold braid; that of Saint Gregory is dark green, with silver buttons and braiding; that of Saint Sylvester is black, with gold buttons and braiding.
Papal knights and dames do not have any specific obligations by virtue of their having been given the personal honor of membership in these Orders. It is customary, however, for them to be invited to participate in major events of their diocese, such as the consecration of Bishops, the ordination of Priests, and the introduction of a new Bishop into his diocese. On such occasions it is recommended that they wear the uniform of their respective Order.
TO THE HEREDITARY OFFICES OF THE PAPAL COURT   
 


 
*********
*********
*********











 
THE SUPREME ORDER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST

© Guy Stair Sainty

FOR THE LATEST ON THE ORDER OF CHRIST AND THE PAPAL ORDERS, SEE BURKE'S PEERAGE AND GENTRY WORLD ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD AND MERIT, purchase at www.exacteditions.com/burkespeerage/wokm
This rarely given distinction cannot strictly be characterized today as an Order of Knighthood, but more as an award of honor of the highest possible standing. The recent reforms of the Papal Orders by Pope Paul VI, [1] the Order of Christ was reserved to Catholic Heads of State to whom it might be given only to commemorate very special occasions at which the Pope himself was present. [2] This Order was last awarded in 1987 to the late Frà Angelo de Mojana, 77th Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of his election to the Grand Magistery; he died the following year. With the recent death of King Baudouin of the Belgians the are no living Knights of the Papal Supreme Order of Christ and there is a considered opinion that the present Pope may have decided to let it fall into abeyance, at least for the present.
The original foundation was actually a religious military Order under the rule of Saint Benedict, constituted in Portugal by King Denis I on 14 August 1318, confirmed and granted statutory regulation by the Bull Ad ea ex quibus of Pope John XXII, given at Avignon 14/15 March 1319.[3] The Order's endowment was established with the surviving estates of the recently dissolved Order of the Temple, just as in Spain most of these estates were used to establish the Order of Montesa. The first Grand Master, Dom Gil Martins or Martinez had been a knight of Saint Benedict of Aviz, originally a branch of the Order of Calatrava. Originally based at Castro Marino, in the Diocese of Faro, they moved their headquarters to Thomar, near Santaren, in 1366 (under the 6th Grand Master, Dom Nuño Rodriguez). Although at first the Order's rules required the three vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, these were modified by Pope Alexander VI at the end of the 15th century, dispensing with that of poverty and allowing the knights to marry provided Commanders undertook to continue their responsions (one third of their revenues) to the Order's treasury.


























By the middle of the 16th century the Order possessed some four hundred and fifty commanderies with revenues of one and half million (livres) per annum and provided a major source of power for the Crown. Although the knights no longer took the monastic vows, the counter-reformation saw a revival of the Order's spiritual life with the appointment of Dom Antonio de Lisboa as Apostolic Visitor. The Grand Prior was removed from office and all the priests and religious of the Order were required to resume Conventual life at Thomar, and to wear the habit and cross of the Order. A new dormitory was built, along g with a large refectory, and novices after a year of probation were required to take the monastic vows. Having obtained the position of Prior, Dom Antonio persuaded Pius V to give him virtual control of all the Convents of the Order in 1567 and then sought the suppression of the Knights. King Sebastian protested and obtained confirmation of his post as Grand Master, but the religious members of the Order were now effectively separated from the lay, military membership. Sebastian died in 1578 and was succeeded by his great-uncle, Henrique I, the penultimate male prince of the legitimate line of the House of Bragança, who had taken Holy Orders and was a Cardinal of the Church. He died in 1580 whereupon the throne was assumed by King Philip II of Spain, by right of his mother Isabel, the eldest daughter of Manuel I and sister of King Henrique.















It has been stated by several historians that by the terms of the Bull Ad ea ex quibus, the Popes reserved to themselves the right to award membership in the Order. However, the text of the Bull does not include any such right and it appears that the later Papal award of the Order led to conflict with the Kings of Portugal. Nonetheless, according to Helyot, knights of Christ were appointed by Papal Bull, without the need to provide noble proofs, from the reign of Pope John XXII onwards. According to Dom Jose-Vicente de Braganza, this practice is not documented before the eighteenth century and was so resented by the Portuguese Kings that, in at least one case, an Italian knight (the architect Giovanni Servandoni) appointed by the Holy See was arrested for wearing the insignia. It is evident that the Holy See, in reorganizing the Papal Orders in 1905, wished logically to place the Order which remembered the name of Our Savior as the Supreme among the distinctions awarded by the Holy See. Hence the Order of Christ was described as being the successor of the Order founded by the Papal Bull Ad ea ex quibus since the Portuguese Order had long lost its religious character. Although the Holy See seems to have decided not to award it for the present, it is to be hoped that this highest Vatican honor will once again be conceded to a worthy Catholic Head of State.
To the PORTUGUESE ORDER OF CHRIST



Footnotes

[1]In the Bull Equestres Ordinis of 15 April 1966.
[2]The same Bull restricted the Order of the Golden Spur to Christian, not necessarily Catholic, heads of State.
[3]This began, "Joannes Episcopus, servus servorum Dei. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. Ad ea, ex quibus cults augeatur divinus, fidelium quies in quiete proficiat, & defensionis murus....".

Leadership of the Savoy Orders
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Order of Merit of Savoy
Order of Civil Merit of Savoy
Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
   



THE SUPREME ORDER OF THE MOST HOLY ANNUNCIATION
        The premier dynastic order of chivalry of the Royal House of Savoy, above all other honors and awards, is the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation,  known in Italian as the “Annunziata”. One of the greatest of all chivalric orders, comparable to the Habsburg Golden Fleece, the English Order of the Garter and the Papal Supreme Order of Christ, the Annunziata was reserved exclusively for distinguished men-at-arms who, apart from exemplary service, had to be Roman Catholic and of noble birth. The Order was created in 1362 when Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy (1343-1383), instituted it as a dynastic religious order under the title of Order of the Collar.  Even at that time, the Order was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, who is celebrated as "Our Lady of the Annunciation."
        At its inception,  the Order had fifteen knights.  In 1409, Amadeus VIII (1383-1451),  Count of   Savoy,  later elevated to the first Duke of Savoy in 1416, gave the Order its first known statutes.  In 1518, Amadeus VIII’s statutes were amended and reformed by Duke Charles III (1486-1553) who extended the Order to five more knights.  Further amendments were made in 1570 by Duke Emmanuel Philibert (1528-1580), and thereafter by succeeding Grand Masters. The most recent changes were promulgated  on June 11, 1985 by H.R.H. Prince Victor Emmanuel of Savoy, the current hereditary Grand Master of the Order.
        The head of the Royal House of Savoy continues to confer the Order, though very rarely.  A recent recipient was H.S.H. the late Prince Rainier III of Monaco. The Annunziata is now bestowed only upon members of royal families and heads of state. Today, in addition to senior members of the Savoy family, its members also include H.M. the King of Spain, H.M. the King of The Belgians, and H.I.M. the Emperor of Japan.
        The Order has only one rank and is limited to twenty knights.  The Order, however,  has two sets of insignia, the Piccola Collana (Small Collar) and the Grande Collana (Large Collar).  The primary and oldest insignia of the Annunziata  is the collar. It consists of a solid gold medallion of the collar, which portrays the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary by the Archangel Gabriel. The medallion is surrounded by three intertwined Savoy knots, decorated with small crosses fleury, and in the upper center, between two of the Savoy knots, a cluster of rays with a dove, representing the Holy Spirit, is also depicted  in gold. The badge is suspended from a gold chain made up of fifteen ornate gold sections, each of which is linked by a Savoy knot. The star of the Annunziata, which was first used in 1680 is gold and also has a representation of the Annunciation in a medallion in the center which is set within a gold cross of four pommels. This is surrounded by a cluster of gold rays.
History and traditions of the House of Savoy, the Royal Family of Italy. Presented by Regalis.
History of the Savoys
Heads of the House of Savoy
Two Savoys Return to Italy
Genealogy of the House of Savoy
Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
Statutes of the Order of the Annunciation
Decree on Italian Nobiliary Succession 1926
Jewish Families Ennobled by the Savoy Monarchs
Who is the Head of the House of Savoy?



 

Royal Order of the Seraphim

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The Royal Order of the Seraphim
Kungliga Serafimerorden
Serafijnorde;ster.jpg
Star of the order
Awarded by Personal Command Sign of the King of Sweden.svg The Monarch of Sweden
Type Single grade order of merit
Motto Iesus Hominum Salvator
Day 28 April
Eligibility Until 1975: Swedish and foreign persons
Since 1975:
Foreign heads of state or other foreigners of equivalent rank, members of the Swedish Royal Family
Awarded for services to Sweden
Status Currently constituted
Grand Master His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
Chancellor Ingemar Eliasson[1]
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight/Member and Commander (RoKavKMO/LoKavKMO)
Member of the Cloth
Knight/Member (RSerafO/LSerafO)
Established 1748
First induction 1748
Precedence
Next (higher) None (highest)
Next (lower) Order of the Polar Star
Order of the Seraphim - Ribbon bar.svg
Ribbon bar of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
The Royal Order of the Seraphim (Swedish Kungliga Serafimerorden) (Seraphim being a category of Angels) is a Swedish Royal order of chivalry created by King Frederick I of Sweden on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star. After the reorganization of the orders in 1975 the order is only awarded to foreign heads of state and members of the royal family (the last non-royal Swedish holder was Sten Rudholm). The order has only one class with the dignity of Knight (Member for women and Member of the Cloth for clergymen), and is the foremost order of Sweden.
The three above mentioned Orders together with the Order of Vasa form the Orders of His Majesty the King [2] (Swedish Kungl. Maj:ts Orden), a term also used for the chancellery of the Orders in the Royal Palace. A Swedish Knight (Member/of the Cloth) of the Order of the Seraphim is not referred to as a Knight (Member/of the Cloth) of the Seraphim, but rather as a Knight and Commander of the Orders of His Majesty the King (Swedish: Riddare och Kommendör av Kunglig Majestäts Orden). This form is used because the Swedish word orden is an old plural form which indicates that a knight has to be a Commander Grand Cross or 1st Class of at least one of the other Swedish Orders. Foreign Knights are for the greater part Knights of the Order of the Seraphim. A Knight of the Order may be styled "Herr" + surname, which used to be the formal style for Swedish secular Knights (untitled high-ranking noblemen) appointed by the Swedish King, a practice that ceased in the 17th Century. Until 1975 the sons of the Swedish monarch were borne knights of the Order.[3] At present the sons and daughters of the Swedish monarch do not become knights and members of the Order until they are eighteen years of age.
When a knight of the Order dies, his coat of arms is hung in the former royal burial church Riddarholmskyrkan in Stockholm, and when the funeral takes place the church bells are rung constantly from 12:00 to 13:00.
When originally instituted the knights of the Order were required to supervise the major hospitals and mental asylums in Sweden, and in particular, the Seraphim Hospital, which was a major hospital in Stockholm until it was closed in 1980. This requirement evidentually died out as boards of physicians and other professionals made such supervision by the Knights of the Seraphim anachronistic during the course of the 19th century.

Contents

 [hide

[edit] History

The first set of statutes described the Order as "revived", but this is unsubstantiated. No Swedish sources account for an ancient Order of the Seraphim.[citation needed]
The medieval custom of new crowned monarchs dubbing knights at their coronations[4] as a way of specially honoring particular noblemen was apparently accompanied in Sweden with the gift of a chain apparently specially designed for the occasion. These chains did not indicate the initiation into an order of chivalry as this is usually understood, since the bestowal of a chain of a particular design only occurred at a particular coronation and was not repeated at any other coronations or royal event. The description of some of these chains from the some of pre-Vasa coronations states that they consisted of alternating link of seraphim heads and patriarchal crosses, thus perhaps creating the later impression that there had been an earlier order of the Seraphim of which the 1748 order was seen as a revival. It seems reasonable to assume, at very least, that the accounts of these earlier knightly collars influenced the choice of design for the collar of the 1748 order.
This medieval custom survived into the period of the Vasa dynasty as well, for Eric XIV is known to have bestowed an Order of the Lamb of God at his coronation in 1561. Similarly, John III had bestowed the Order of the Name of Jesus in 1569. It is noteworthy that a contemporary representation of this order shows a collar of alternating red-enameled seraphim heads and gold patriarchal crosses from which hangs a as pendant an oval badge enameled blue and bearing the Greek letters of the Christogram IHS (the initials of the name of Jesus in Greek) with a cross above and the three nails of the Passion below between the three crowns of the Swedish royal arms—the same as the central medallion of the latter Order of the Seraphim.[5] King Charles IX of Sweden bestowed the Royal Order of Jehova or Jehova Orderat his coronation in 1606—perhaps as Calvinist alternative or reaction to the Catholic devotion to the Name of Jesus implied in his brother’s coronation order. Charles X Gustav’s Order of the Saviour took the form of a similar circular medallion bearing the letters IHS in diamonds surrounded by a border of diamonds in the center of a cross formed of four enameled Vasa sheaves and hanging from a pink ribbon worn around the neck, of which one example survives in the collections of the Royal Armory.[6]
The French Order of the Holy Spirit may have inspired the idea of placing the earlier medallion of the Name of Jesus in the center of a white enameled Maltese cross with gold Seraphim heads between the arms of this cross guarding this medallion with their wings, just as the French order bore the white dove of the Holy Spirit surrounded by green flames on similar white Maltese cross. Also like the French royal orders of chivalry the breast stars of the Swedish orders similarly took the form of silver crosses.

[edit] Insignia and vestments

Knights and Members of the Order wear the badge on a collar (chain) or on a sash from the right shoulder, and the star on the left chest:
  • The badge of the Order is a white-enamelled gilt Maltese Cross, with a gilt patriarchal cross on each arm of the cross, and gilt seraphim between the arms of the cross. The obverse central disc is in blue enamel, with a white-enamelled "IHS" Christogram amongst Three Crowns; beneath this are three nails with which Jesus Christ was crucified. The reverse central disc is also in blue enamel, with white-enamelled letters "FRS" (Fredericus, Rex Sueciae, Frederick King of Sweden). The badge hangs from a gold royal crown.
  • The star of the Order is the same as the obverse of the badge, except the crosses and seraphim are in silver and without enamel and without the royal crown.
  • The ribbon (sash) of the Order is pale blue, referred to in Sweden as seraphim blue.

[edit] Vestments of the order

Formerly Knights of the Order also had two distinctive habits, worn on special and formal occasions such as coronations, chapters, etc. They were called the Large Habit and the Small Habit.
  • The Small Habit was in purple/red and yellow. The habit also included breeches, waistcoat, coat, cape and a black top hat with a plume of white ostrich and black egret feathers.

[edit] See also

  • Royal Order of the Seraphim


    The Royal Order of the Seraphim
    Kungliga Serafimerorden
    Serafijnorde;ster.jpg
    Star of the order
    Awarded by Personal Command Sign of the King of Sweden.svg The Monarch of Sweden
    Type Single grade order of merit
    Motto Iesus Hominum Salvator
    Day 28 April
    Eligibility Until 1975: Swedish and foreign persons
    Since 1975:
    Foreign heads of state or other foreigners of equivalent rank, members of the Swedish Royal Family
    Awarded for services to Sweden
    Status Currently constituted
    Grand Master His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
    Chancellor Ingemar Eliasson[1]
    Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight/Member and Commander (RoKavKMO/LoKavKMO)
    Member of the Cloth
    Knight/Member (RSerafO/LSerafO)
    Established 1748
    First induction 1748
    Precedence
    Next (higher) None (highest)
    Next (lower) Order of the Polar Star
    Order of the Seraphim - Ribbon bar.svg
    Ribbon bar of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
    The Royal Order of the Seraphim (Swedish Kungliga Serafimerorden) (Seraphim being a category of Angels) is a Swedish Royal order of chivalry created by King Frederick I of Sweden on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star. After the reorganization of the orders in 1975 the order is only awarded to foreign heads of state and members of the royal family (the last non-royal Swedish holder was Sten Rudholm). The order has only one class with the dignity of Knight (Member for women and Member of the Cloth for clergymen), and is the foremost order of Sweden.
    The three above mentioned Orders together with the Order of Vasa form the Orders of His Majesty the King [2] (Swedish Kungl. Maj:ts Orden), a term also used for the chancellery of the Orders in the Royal Palace. A Swedish Knight (Member/of the Cloth) of the Order of the Seraphim is not referred to as a Knight (Member/of the Cloth) of the Seraphim, but rather as a Knight and Commander of the Orders of His Majesty the King (Swedish: Riddare och Kommendör av Kunglig Majestäts Orden). This form is used because the Swedish word orden is an old plural form which indicates that a knight has to be a Commander Grand Cross or 1st Class of at least one of the other Swedish Orders. Foreign Knights are for the greater part Knights of the Order of the Seraphim. A Knight of the Order may be styled "Herr" + surname, which used to be the formal style for Swedish secular Knights (untitled high-ranking noblemen) appointed by the Swedish King, a practice that ceased in the 17th Century. Until 1975 the sons of the Swedish monarch were borne knights of the Order.[3] At present the sons and daughters of the Swedish monarch do not become knights and members of the Order until they are eighteen years of age.
    When a knight of the Order dies, his coat of arms is hung in the former royal burial church Riddarholmskyrkan in Stockholm, and when the funeral takes place the church bells are rung constantly from 12:00 to 13:00.
    When originally instituted the knights of the Order were required to supervise the major hospitals and mental asylums in Sweden, and in particular, the Seraphim Hospital, which was a major hospital in Stockholm until it was closed in 1980. This requirement evidentually died out as boards of physicians and other professionals made such supervision by the Knights of the Seraphim anachronistic during the course of the 19th century.

    Contents

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    [edit] History

    The first set of statutes described the Order as "revived", but this is unsubstantiated. No Swedish sources account for an ancient Order of the Seraphim.[citation needed]
    The medieval custom of new crowned monarchs dubbing knights at their coronations[4] as a way of specially honoring particular noblemen was apparently accompanied in Sweden with the gift of a chain apparently specially designed for the occasion. These chains did not indicate the initiation into an order of chivalry as this is usually understood, since the bestowal of a chain of a particular design only occurred at a particular coronation and was not repeated at any other coronations or royal event. The description of some of these chains from the some of pre-Vasa coronations states that they consisted of alternating link of seraphim heads and patriarchal crosses, thus perhaps creating the later impression that there had been an earlier order of the Seraphim of which the 1748 order was seen as a revival. It seems reasonable to assume, at very least, that the accounts of these earlier knightly collars influenced the choice of design for the collar of the 1748 order.
    This medieval custom survived into the period of the Vasa dynasty as well, for Eric XIV is known to have bestowed an Order of the Lamb of God at his coronation in 1561. Similarly, John III had bestowed the Order of the Name of Jesus in 1569. It is noteworthy that a contemporary representation of this order shows a collar of alternating red-enameled seraphim heads and gold patriarchal crosses from which hangs a as pendant an oval badge enameled blue and bearing the Greek letters of the Christogram IHS (the initials of the name of Jesus in Greek) with a cross above and the three nails of the Passion below between the three crowns of the Swedish royal arms—the same as the central medallion of the latter Order of the Seraphim.[5] King Charles IX of Sweden bestowed the Royal Order of Jehova or Jehova Orderat his coronation in 1606—perhaps as Calvinist alternative or reaction to the Catholic devotion to the Name of Jesus implied in his brother’s coronation order. Charles X Gustav’s Order of the Saviour took the form of a similar circular medallion bearing the letters IHS in diamonds surrounded by a border of diamonds in the center of a cross formed of four enameled Vasa sheaves and hanging from a pink ribbon worn around the neck, of which one example survives in the collections of the Royal Armory.[6]
    The French Order of the Holy Spirit may have inspired the idea of placing the earlier medallion of the Name of Jesus in the center of a white enameled Maltese cross with gold Seraphim heads between the arms of this cross guarding this medallion with their wings, just as the French order bore the white dove of the Holy Spirit surrounded by green flames on similar white Maltese cross. Also like the French royal orders of chivalry the breast stars of the Swedish orders similarly took the form of silver crosses.

    [edit] Insignia and vestments

    Knights and Members of the Order wear the badge on a collar (chain) or on a sash from the right shoulder, and the star on the left chest:
  • The collar of the Order is in gold, with eleven patriarchal crosses enamelled in blue and eleven seraphim.
  • The badge of the Order is a white-enamelled gilt Maltese Cross, with a gilt patriarchal cross on each arm of the cross, and gilt seraphim between the arms of the cross. The obverse central disc is in blue enamel, with a white-enamelled "IHS" Christogram amongst Three Crowns; beneath this are three nails with which Jesus Christ was crucified. The reverse central disc is also in blue enamel, with white-enamelled letters "FRS" (Fredericus, Rex Sueciae, Frederick King of Sweden). The badge hangs from a gold royal crown.
  • The star of the Order is the same as the obverse of the badge, except the crosses and seraphim are in silver and without enamel and without the royal crown.
  • The ribbon (sash) of the Order is pale blue, referred to in Sweden as seraphim blue.

[edit] Vestments of the order

Formerly Knights of the Order also had two distinctive habits, worn on special and formal occasions such as coronations, chapters, etc. They were called the Large Habit and the Small Habit.
  • The Small Habit was in purple/red and yellow. The habit also included breeches, waistcoat, coat, cape and a black top hat with a plume of white ostrich and black egret feathers.

[edit] See also

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