The Jesuit New World Order

Monday, 5 March 2012

washington dc Grand Design Exposed which is
"vaticanLucifer Sun Worship Exposed"
The Phallic Obelisk and Dome
From your aerial vantage point over the Vatican courtyard, you will also see rising from the center or hub of this Sun Wheel, in its erect position, a symbol of the Occult and Sun Worship that is highly regarded for its sacred importance. This particular Sun symbol was literally uprooted from Egypt and transplanted in Rome, as others were taken to the cities of London, Paris, Constantinople, and Central Park, New York. Its numerous 'look a likes' are popularly used as monuments and memorials for great men, or actually any man that wants to be remembered. A casual walk through any graveyard will vividly show you this. But just what is the significance of the Sun symbol, this stone monument or 'obelisk' as it is called, especially in certain places where it stands erectbefore a Dome?
First, it must be noted that even though the obelisk has been publicly displayed in the most obvious and conspicuous places to be seen, yet in any dictionary or regular encyclopedia, the subject 'obelisk' and its full meaning is just never explained. Only in specialized books and literature do you find its true symbolic significance and what it meant to those who worshiped the Sun. In other words, the obelisk symbol has been purposely displayed for public awareness, but at the same time,its real meaning has been kept from us, or at the least, kept out of those reference books where most would normally look.
However, the Encyclopedia American, 1964 edition, showing how the obelisk was related to Sun worship, explains it like this-"a monument representing the sun in ancient Egyptian religion. The Egyptians were sun worshipers, regarding the great luminary as the creator of the universe, the maker of all gods above and below, and even the author of himself...The two most striking characteristic monuments which represented him on earth were the obelisk and thepyramid...The obelisk is the technical figure of one ray or pencil of light emanating from the sun." The word o-'bel'-iskactually means the 'shaft of Bel'; Bel being another way of writing Baal, the Babylonian and Egyptian Sun god, that all nations followed after.
It is an interesting fact about the chief temples of Egypt and Babylonia, that they were "oriented"--that is to say, that the temples were built so that the shrine and entrance always faced in the same direction. On one morning in the year, and one morning alone, in a temple oriented to the rising place of the sun at Mid-Summer Day, the sun's first rays would smite down through the gloom of the temple and down the long alley of the temple pillars to brilliantly illuminate the altar. Thus it was believe that by that pencil of light or "shaft" of theSun's presence upon the altar, it became impregnated. This solemn even gave assurance of fertility in the land and another fruitful year.
But as further evidence that gives proof that Roman Catholicism is nothing more than disguised Sun Worship, that actually arose from the ruins of Roman paganism, consider the fact that the Vatican of today and St. Peter's Basilica is literally built right over the very grounds of the ancient Vatican Circus. It was here, that they held their chariot races to the "Sun". And as then, so today, St. Peter's is oriented toward the east. That is, "so that at the vernal equinox the great doors can be thrown open at sunrise and the sun rays passing through the nave will illuminate the high altar."
By pagan tradition, an altar symbolized the female body, which in turn symbolized 'Mother' Earth. It does not take any great imagination to understand the symbolism of an obelisk standing before a Dome--which represents a pregnant woman's belly. Ask yourself with deep soul searching, what does any of this have to do with"true" Christianity??
Today's world wide participation in observing calendar dates that have come down to us from ancient Babylonian Sun worship, tells only too well the influence this system has had upon mankind. Most people today observe these dates as Christian holy days and festivities, when in reality, the dates themselves have nothing whatever to do with Christianity. Christmas and Easter both are good examples of how these Sun dates have been twisted and perverted to be recognized as something that is Christian. Yet, any good encyclopedia will quickly inform you of their true origin.
Chapter 15
America's Occult Agenda-Unmasked
America's Greatest Shame
The hidden occult forces that were directly responsible for the birth of the United States of America, began to visibly show themselves immediately after independence was won. Within the very governing center itself, the capitol site of Washington D.C., the site chosen in spite of many who fiercely opposed it, occultic symbolism was cleverly designed right into the overall layout of the streets and certain occultic architectural structures and monumentsto form a gigantic occultic pattern or picture, all of which corresponded with the occultic symbolism and message designed into the nation's Great Seal. These became not only a memorial and testimony to the 'Great Work' of this nation's but also for thesecret work that is destined for its future. The boldness with which the leaders of the new Republic so arrogantly displayed their occultic symbolism to be represented at the very heart and soul of what was American, speaks loudly for itself and their contempt. In their veiled communication intended only for the initiated few, it makes know that the "Grand Design" is progressing and is on schedule as planned, regardless of the great masses that oppose it. But what is most puzzling, is that Protestants who have always boasted that America was founded on Protestant principles and Bible Christianity, never challenge or speak a word against the prominent occultic symbolism that so glaringly decorate our nation's capitol and literally makes up the Great Seal. It brings home the saying, that if you want to hide a tree, plant it in a forest, when today these occultic monuments and symbolisms are there quite visible for all to see, yet curiously, no one seems to see them at all. Protestantism, that should be enlightening their fellow Americans of their impending peril have instead abandoned them to grope in utter darkness.
To those not familiar with the occultic adornments that have been so graciously bestowed upon the capitol city of the United States of America by the founding fathers, that have now become our occultic national heritage, all you need is a street map of Washington D.C. and a marking pen to highlight a number of streets to reveal the intended veiled occultic picture. Beginning at the White House, highlight the two streets going north to form a 'V'. The one, Connecticut Avenue, up to and terminate at Dupont Circle. The other, Vermont Avenue, up to and terminate at Logan Circle. From Dupont Circle, follow and highlight Massachusetts Avenue south-east to and terminate at Mt. Vernon Square. From Logan Circle, follow and highlight Rhode Island Avenue south-west to and terminate at Washington Circle. Highlight a line connecting Washington Circle and Mt. Vernon Square along 'K' Street. What you have now revealed is the universally know satanic symbol of the inverted pentagram.
Pause for a moment, and ponder the full significance of what that most sacred satanic symbol laying there before you means. Aghast, it begins to penetrate, as you realize that the satanic image on the map is actually a supersize reality at the very heart beat of the United States government. It is the U.S.A. signature of approval, dark and hidden, for every profligate movement in our society today, and is portentous for what is in store for this nation's future. It's not some child's play, who has drawn an imaginative star in the sky to wish upon. This mammoth inverted five pointed star is real, embedded right into the streets of the capitol city of a rising world superpower by mature men designed to convey a clear and precise message for a specific purpose to the Occult world. No other nation in the world has such a street layout or has been chosen for such a diabolical future work. Think about this too: the highest award this government can bestow upon a person is the Congressional Medal of Honor--which is also an inverted pentagram.
As all Satanist and those in the occult know, within the center of every pentagram, which they call the Blazing Star, there is formed the pentagon. It is inside the center of the pentagram or pentagon, where in Witchcraft, witches and warlocks got to cast their spells. And as a symbol of freedom and to more readily achieve their built up power and certain sexual tensions, the participants only perform naked. Witchcraft and astrology being nothing more than a form of Babylonian Mystery Religion Sun Worship, within it, is taught that the Sun-god and Moon-goddess 'created' the whole universe.
To
honor this belief, the High Priest in a coven is believed to be the incarnation of the Sun-god and the High-Priestess the incarnation of the Queen of Heaven or Moon-goddess. To mimic or simulate the 'creation act', the abominable ritual is performed called "The Great Rite" when these two engage in sexual activities. This sacred prostitution is justified by them on the grounds of fertility and Phallicism; the veneration and worship of the male and female sex organs, which all Sun-Worship philosophy is based on.
The pentagram and pentagon are associated with the number five; the pentagram being a five pointed star and the pentagon having five sides. Ancient Babylon was the birth place of Astrology, the Zodiac, the Horoscope, and Numerology that was substituted for divining the future instead of the Word of the true God. Originally, the letters of the various alphabets had a numerical value. Some still do today, like the Roman numerals. But Babylonian astrology taught that the chief gods of the zodiac, which were but emanations of the Sun-god as they serpentined their way through the zodiacal band, all had a Sacred Number. And the most 'sacred number' that was applied to the Sun-god incarnate or Pontifex Maximus(meaning High Priest) and no other, is important to us because it is referred to in Scripture. But the number five was associated with the planet Mars, the god of War. Thus the symbol of the five sided Pentagon Building, which houses the largest office building in the world covering 34 acres, for the United States Of America Department of Defense, just outside of Washington D.C., that is so important and significant to the elite occultists.
It is comforting to know that even though Freemasonry and theJesuits, those front organizations for the Church of Rome, have shrouded their sinsister intentions around mysterious occultic symbols, it is no dark secret for what they have planned for America and the world to those who want to understand the predictions of Scripture. For the Sovereign God of Creation and the universe has wonderfully laid out for His people to see, two thousand years ago, precisely what they were going to do just before our Lord's return. This single fact alone is enough to prove which God is true from those that are false.
But people today without heaven's compass, are being swept away into believing that for the good and sake of all mankind and the preservation of 'Mother Earth', we must not think and act as individuals who believe there is but One who died on the Cross for the sin of the world; One alone who is the Son of God; One alone who is uniquely the way, the Truth and the Life. To serve and obey this God of creation as the true God above all others is to be branded as an isolationist and separationist and denounced as dangerous to world peace. But rather, we must now act as a global community; not giving offense to other religions, but must all conform to the one interdependent global structure of the 'wise one's; New World Order and its United Religion Organization that is leading the world into its blind alley of doom. And to usher in this corruptible fruit of six thousand years of man's labor, and to fully convince us all that it is heaven sent, they have concocted a special dive event', a global delusion that will startle and jot the inhabitants of the whole world in headlong obedience.
As already mentioned, occultic Sun Worship honors and dignifies fertility rites and promiscuous sexual activities in the belief and teaching that the Father Sun-god benevolently impregnates Mother Earth; for the purpose of supplying all nature with substance for sustaining life. Otherwise, all nature would die. All occultists, Satanists, witches and warlocks believe this. In fact, they vigorously promote free sex of every description as a reenactment of Father Sun and Mother Earth's sex act. To anyone unfamiliar with these beliefs and teachings, raw sex is quite shocking to the senses. However when the most powerful and wealthy people of the world are occultists, who are silently bulldozing this superstitious corruption upon the inhabitants of the world, and you see it enough, the senses then become dulled. But when you understand what is going on, it comes as no surprise that the President of the United States and Congress can enact laws to teach sex education to children; endorse, protect, and promote homosexuality under civil rights laws, and legally bring raw sex right into your living room through the television. All of this blatant immorality is just another way to make mockery of the true God.
Phallicism, the veneration and worship of the male and female sex organs, is just another perverted doctrine ofSun Worship. And even though the nation of Egypt must receive the glory for its development, the origin, actually took place in Babylon. But like all real life extraordinary events that make indelible impressions upon men's minds, the story will then live on through succeeding generations to finally become a legend. To understand Egyptian phallicism and their world renowned obelisks as its symbol, including the world's largest in Washington D.C, we must understand the Egyptian legend and the Babylonian reality that gave birth to that Egyptian legend.

D.C., London and Vatican City: Do they rule the world?

D.C., London and the Vatican

Vatican city obelisk
What are the three city states and do they rule the world? In this article, I will try to answer some of these questions using history and symbolism. Let’s begin.
The flag in Washington’s District of Columbia has 3 red stars, each symbolizing a city state within the three city empire. The three city empire consists of Washington D.C., London, and Vatican City. London is the corporate center of the three city states and controls the world economically. Washington’s District of Columbia city state is in charge of the military, and the Vatican offers spiritual guidance. The constitution of the district of Columbia operates under a tyrannical roman law known as lex fori, which in no way resembles the U.S. constitution.
When congress passed the act of 1871, it created a separate corporate government for the District of Columbia. This allowed the District of Columbia to operate as a corporation outside the constitution.
If you take a moment to study some signed treaties and charters between the United States and Britain, you will find that the United States has always been a British crowned Colony. In 1606, King James (yes, the King James who revised the bible) signed the charter of Virginia. The charter granted Americas British forefathers a license to settle and colonize America. The charter also guaranteed future kings and queens of England would have sovereign authority over all citizens and colonized land in America.
In 1783, the Paris peace treaty was signed. This treaty identifies the King of England as the prince of the United States contradicting the belief that America won the war of independence. And although King George III of England gave up most claims over his American colonies, he kept his right to continue receiving payments for his business ventures of colonizing America. If America won the war of independence, why would the agree to pay reparations to the king.
When the 13th amendment to the constitution was passed, the U.S. president was made subservient to the King of England. The 13th Amendment (the title of nobility amendment) forbids U.S. officials from using royal titles like king, or prince. For some strange reason though, the 13th amendment which was ratified in 1810 no longer appears in current copies of the U.S. constitution.
The war of independence against the British bankrupted America and turned its citizens into debt slaves of the king. In 1812, the British torched and burned the white house and all U.S. government buildings to the ground, destroying many ratification records of the U.S. constitution.
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Then, nearly a century later, a corrupt U.S. congress committed the biggest theft in world history. They passed Paul Warburgs federal reserve act of 1913, handing over Americas gold and silver reserves (and total control of Americas economy) to the federal reserve bank. Most Americans still believe the FED is owned by the government, but it is not. The FED is a privately owned banking system whose majority class A shareholders include the Rothschild’s, Warburgs, J.P. Morgan, the Rockefeller’s and the Lehman brothers.

Most U.S. citizens believe the United States is a country and the president is its leader, but the U.S. is not a country, it is a corporation, and the president is not our leader, he is the president of the corporation of the U.S. The president, along his elected officials work for the corporation, not for the American People.
So, who owns the giant U.S. corporation? Like Canada and Australia, whose leaders are prime ministers of the queen, and whose land is called crowned land, the U.S. is just another crowned colony. Crowned colonies are controlled by the empire of the three city states. Thus, the U.S. is controlled by the three city states.
Let’s get into some symbolism. At the center of each city state are giant phallic shaped stone monuments called obelisks. In D.C. the obelisk is known as the Washington monument. It was dedicated to Freemason George Washington by the Freemason grand lodge of the District of Columbia. The secretive brotherhood of Freemasons laid the Washington obelisks cornerstone in 1848 and contributed 22 masonic memorial stones. 250 masonic lodges financed the Washington monument obelisk including the knights templar masonic order.
Washington DC obelisk
In the center of London city state is a 187 ton, 69 foot tall Egyptian obelisk called Cleopatras needle. it was transported from Egypt and erected on the banks of the river Thames.
Cleopatras needle London City
In Vatican city, another Egyptian obelisk towers high above saint peters square. (top article photo) Now, you may be asking yourself why this significant, let me tell you.
First, we need to understand what an obelisk is. An obelisk is a phallic shaped monument honoring the pagan sun-god of ancient Egypt called Amun-Ra. The spirit of this pagan god is said to reside within the obelisk. Worshipers of Amun believe Amun is the supreme god and creator of all things, and can transform himself into other gods. Since vowels were used interchangeable in the biblical Hebrew language, Amun could be spelled Amen, Amon, Omon, or Amun. Today, Amun is one of the most popular words in the world. It is used in all languages by Christians, Muslims, Hebrews and Jews at the end of prayer. Without realizing it, people all over the world are praising Amun. The old testament of the bible is the holy book for both Christians and Jews. Amun is repeated over and over again throughout the bible and is hidden within the word testament. The word Amun literally means the hidden one. Many are fooled into believing that Amun means “so be it, or truly,” but in kings one verse 36 of the old testament, Amun is identified as the lord god of my lord.
Basically, I would like to know why these city states operate under lex foriroman law, and why they are represented by an obelisk. These are questions we need to ask. Write your senator, write articles and publish them, tell your friends to look into the matter, research the history and laws related to this issue. Always pay attention to your surroundings.designedWashington D.C.? I really believe Tubby Saussy book "Rulers of Evil" answers all these questions and more. To get the book go to Ebay and do a search on "Rulers of Evil"
In this world it really does not matter what your personal religious beliefs are, but what is happening in the world today has everything to do with religion. It does not matter if you believe in them or not, if the people who believe in them hold positions of power this will most assuredly affect you.

Understand this is not promoting a religion, it is explaining what religion is and has been thru history.
Who Rules?
ring of power, full video

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Birds eye view of the fasces on top of the Capital



A top the Capital is the statute Goddess Athena that adorns the top of the Capital Building. Notice the Roman Fasces prominently displayed at the bottom of Athena. Here is a little background on the goddess athena.
Athena (Minerva)
Athena sprang full-grown and in full armor from Zeus’head. She is his daughter, powerful and self-sufficient. The Parthenon, in the acropolis at Athens, is her temple. Gray-eyed, Athena is the protector of civilized life, the embodiment of wisdom, justice, reason, and moral intelligence. Athena is a virgin goddess, ruthless and warlike when necessary to defend the state and the home from outside enemies. She is often armed, and possessed the Aegis, a shield worn upon her breastplate. Athena invented the bridle and the carriage. She is often accompanied by Nike, the swift goddess of strength and victory.
Serenely beautiful, Athena is identified with the Libyan and Egyptian war-goddess Neith. Her Roman name is Minerva. The Romans observed a yearly festival of Minerva, from the nineteenth to the twenty-third day of March.
.Daughter of Zeus, and only by him, the Goddess Athena was not generated by any woman. She leaped from the head of Zeus, already adult, dressed with her armor.   But the mother is not completely missing from the miraculous birth of Pallas Athena. According to Hesiod's account of the weddings of Zeus, the King of the Gods chose Metis as his first wife. She was of all beings "the most knowing" (as the word metisis interpreted), or "of many counsels" as translated in the sense of the Homeric epithet polymetis.
As she was about to give birth to the Goddess Athena, Zeus deceived his pregnant wife with cunning words and assimilated her into his own body. Mother Earth and Father Sky had advised him to do this so as to prevent any of his descendants from robbing him of his kingly rank. For it was destined that the most brilliant children were to be born to the Goddess Metis: first, the daughter Athena, and later a son, the future King of Gods and men.
In the most ancient account, the Iliad, Athena is the Goddess of ferocious and implacable fight, but, wherever she can be found, she only is a warrior to defend the State and the native land against the enemies coming from outside.
She is, above all, the Goddess of the City, the protectress of civilized life, of artesian activities, and of agriculture. She also invented the horse-bit, which, for the first time, tamed horses, allowing men to use them.
She is the favorite daughter of Zeus; and that's why he let her use his insignia: the terrible shield, the aegis and his devastating weapon, the ray.
The most used expression to describe her is "the bright eyed". She is the first of the three virgin Goddesses, also known as Maiden, Parthenos, and from this name was taken the name to the most important Temple dedicated to her, the Parthenon.
In poetry she is the incarnation of Wisdom, Reason and Purity.
Athens is her city; the olive tree, created by her, is her tree; the owl, is the birth consecrated to her.
As an interesting side note in symbolism the custom in Greece a wreath of laurel was used to crown victors of olympic competitions, inherited from one of the symbols of the god Apollo, who is often depicted wearing/ holding a wreath of laurel leaves. Olive wreaths were also given to olympic victors. In Rome laurel wreaths were worn on the heads of military and government officials in parades. Roman consuls and senators wore wreaths of olive leaves in public.Julius Caesar was granted the right to wear the laurel wreath and“some elements” of triumphal dress at all festivals - Cassius Dio adds that Caesar wore the laurel wreath “wherever and whenever”, excusing this as a cover to his
Now we have to ask ourselves a few Questions. Would a Christian put a Roman goddess on top of the Capital Building? Who laid out and designed
Roman Catholic Sun(Baal) WorshipLucifer Sun Worship Masquerading As True Christianity
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"It is easier to believe a lie that one has heard a thousand times than to believe a fact that
NO ONE has heard before" The missing history about Sun Worship!!
We have to take into consideration that the whole World, meaning, that both the Middle East and European World, and the so called New World of North and South America, that these great masses of mankind all worshiped the Sun ever since, right after the flood, a space of time which is now over 4000 years , if you do not understand this, how can anyone even begin to grasp what has happened to Christendom today?
If you stop and think about it, for example, Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Meads and Persia, Greece and Rome, were the "world civilizations" of the old world-and the Aztecs, Incas, Mayas, Toltec culture and Sioux of the new world all, all worshiped the SUN! By comparison, those who worshiped the True God were only a handful.
What we are trying to focus on here is, that if the whole wide world was ruled, governed, controlled and compelled to worship according to "Lucifer Sun Worship", and that is all the people of the world ever knew, including even, the nation of Israel, God's people, who wanted nothing less, and did also worshiped the SUN, and God destroyed them because of it, (Read Ezekiel chapters 8 and 23) isn't it kind of preposterous not to believe that all "organized Christianity" today has also been totally influenced and fully corrupted by this same "Lucifer Sun Worship" system? And just like the nation of Israel of old, wants nothing less, and will hate you if you try to teach them the Truth.


Galations 4:16 Am I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the truth?


You do not need to be a prophet to know that these things are the Truth. All you need to do is a little historical research. Truly, how can anyone really grasp who and what the Biblical Beast that has seven heads and ten horns really is, unless they are taught to know it's the "Lucifer Sun Worship" system that has been in existence since the history of mankind. Call it Baal worship, Mithraism, Apollo or Sol Invictus, it is the same SUN worship system that has always opposed the Truth of the True God.
When we look at this information it is critical if anyone is going to understand the Biblical three angels message. You must know it to understand that the Roman Catholic Church today is the center of SUN worship, and why this year 2012 will begin the countdown for the pope being set up in Jerusalem by the New World Order.
Who controls the past,(Sun Worship) controls the future:(Sun Worship)
who controls the present,(Sun Worship)
controls the past.(Sun Worship)
George Orwell
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Doctrines of Lucifer Sun WorshipDoctrines of THE CATHOLIC CHRUCH
1. The nativity of the Sun, the birth of Tammuz Dec. 25The nativity of Jesus, or "Christmas" is held on December 25
2. The Midsummer festival of the Sun Worship was held on June 24 of each year The Nativity of St. John is held every year on June 24
3. The assumption of Semiramus who became the mother godess of all Sun WorshipThe assumption of Mary, who became the mother of God to all Catholics
4. The mother goddess was given the title, and worshipped as the Queen of Heaven. Jer. 7:18The Virgin Mary is given the title, and worshipped as the Queen of Heaven by all Catholics.
4.a "Queen of Heaven" is wrath subduer of the Sun worship godMary, "Queen of Heaven" subdues the wrath of Christ and His Father against sinners.
5. Cakes decorated to the goddess with a "+" drawn on it. Jer. 44:17,19Hot cross buns are backed for Mary in most Roman Catholic churches
6. 40 days fasting before Easter for Tammuz, Ezek. 8:14Catholics fast 40 days (Lent) before Easter
7. Sexual festival of Easter. Ezek 8:16The Roman Catholic church initiated the sexual festival of Easter first in Christiandom
7a. Gathering at sunrise for worshipCatholic church stated Easter sunrise services first in Christiandom
8. The resurrection of Tammuz on Easter, and the procession of graven images during Easter holy week All Roman Catholic churches parade partake in processions of graven images of Jesus, Mary, and Peter, and of the saints during Easter week
9. Veneration of graven images of Baal, Ishtar, Tammuz and lesser gods in the heavensAll Roman Catholic churches venerate graven images of Jesus, Mary, Peter, and of the "lesser" saints in the heavens
10. The belief of the constant immortality of the soul, and burning place of eternal torment Rome teaches the belief of immortality of the soul and a burning place of eternal torment
11. Sun Worship believed in the doctrine of purgatoryRome teaches the doctrine of purgatory
12. The belief of the dead visiting the living on a certain day each year. A feast is then held for all the dead on first day of November. (Called all souls day)Rome teaches they must hold a festival for the dead on all souls day held Nov. 2, and all saints day held Nov. 1 of each year
13. Burning incense and candles Jer 11:17; Ezek 8:11Rome, as well as every Satanic church burns incense and candles in their "masses"
14. Chants and repetitive prayers. Beaded prayer chains.Rome as well as Satanists use chants and the beaded prayer chains. (Rome calls the chant "Gregorian chant" and the beaded chained "Rosary")
15. Symbol of the cross as symbol of Sun worship. Mesopotamian cylinder seals of old have been found that depicted the "cross in the sky" as a symbol of sun worship. Ancient carvings of an Assyrian kings have also had huge crosses carved on their chest. The oldest pictures in the world from Mesopotamia has text with is explaining the "cross" in the sky as the symbol for the sun. This particular archeological find is on display at the University Museum in Philadelphia PA.The Roman Catholic church displays a plus sign "+" cross symbol not only on the walls, paintings, windows, and roofs of their churches. Their priests also have these crosses on their clothing. Many other churches also use them and even place them inside a circle as a double symbol of Baal. The crucifix itself is an elongated version of the cross of Baal as well. Pagan Rome of old offered human sacrifices to Baal on these crosses as well.
16. Sun Worship wear amulets and idols to scare away evil spiritsRoman Catholicism teaches the wearing of crucifixes and medals as a method of protection. The scapular is proof of that fact.
17. The round disk "sun" wafer with the IHS symbol for Isis, Horus & Seb, was eaten as food for the soul and worshipped as Baal incarnateThe Roman Catholic Eucharist / wafer also has the IHS carvings on it for Isis, Horus, and Seb. And it is also given as food for the soul, and is worshipped as god incarnate.
18. Sun Worshiper's would paint the child Tammuz and his mother Semiramus with the glory of the Sun around their heads Rome paints the child Jesus and his mother Mary with halos of the Sun around their heads
19. Sun Worshiper's performed infant baptism, and the sprinkling of holy waterRome practices infant baptism, as well as the sprinkling of holy water
20. Pagans taught Necromancy (Talking to the dead)Rome teaches Mysticism (Novenas/prayers to the dead)
21. The first day of the week kept sacred to honor the Persian sun god Mithra. The name of the day was changed to "SUN"day Rome admitted they changed the Sabbath from day 7 to day one in honor of "SUN"day
22. The title Pontifex Maximus was given to the chief head of the Sun Worship Babylonian system of idolatryThe title Pontifex Maximus is the main title of the Popes of Rome
23. Pagan gods (Janus and Cybele) were believed to be holders of the keys to Heaven and HellThe pope claims to have the keys of Peter within his clutches
24. The highest Sun Worship priest kings was carried on a throne to the to the Temple of his god in special ceremonyThe Pope is carried on a portable throne to the Basilica of St. Peter (Sedia Gestoria) in special ceremony
25. The Sun Worship high priest king is believed to be the incarnate of the Sun godThe Pope proclaims to be Jesus Christ in the flesh on Earth
26. Sun Worship are taught to perform offerings of "good works" to appease the godsCatholics are required to do penance, purchase indulgences, and perform many good works to gain salvation
27. Sun Worship had special houses for the virgin priestesses to be employed at Pagan temples. Some of these women were used as prostitutes for the heterosexual priestsThe Roman Catholic church has Nuns
28. Sun Worship often had human sacrifices burned by fire as an offering to appease the sun godMany millions of opposers of Roman Catholic doctrines were burned at the stake
29. Sun Worship believed that gold was the flesh of the "Sungod" and would fill their temples of worship with as much as possibleThe Vatican is literally drenched in gold throughout, as are numerous cathedrals the world over
30. Sun Worship often placed stone carving of Gargoils upon their roofs as a Sun Worship god of protectionThe Vatican as well as thousands of Catholic churches across the globe have gargoils on their roofs
31. Phallic symbol of the male sex organ were placed on the roofs, or in courtyards of pagan templesThe Vatican has the largest phallic symbol in the middle of St Peter's square. Plus all Roman Catholic churches have them on their roofs. Today, we call them steeples.
32. The Solar wheel is a symbol for Baal and was given reverence by the Sun Worship of old. This wheel can be found carved into ancient as well as modern Buddhist temples and carved into ancient ornamental form representing Osiris.St Peter's square has largest solar wheel on the planet. ALL Catholic churches have numerous solar wheels in stain glass windows as well as many other areas of the church. Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris sports a very huge one on it's face. There is a great one in ceiling as well as the floor tiles of the monastery of St. Ignatius Loyola in Spain. Numerous paintings, statues, ornaments, and letterheads of all Catholic churches have one or more "solar wheels" depicted upon them. And the ONE WORLD CHURCH that started on June 26, 2000 uses the solar wheel as its official logo on their letterhead
33. Archeologists have found numerous carvings of the serpent on Sun Worship Rome bath housesThe symbol of serpent can also be found on numerous Catholic churches in door handles, Papal crests, etc.
34. Sun Worship have depicted "Atlas" as carrying the universe on his shoulders. They would place a large globe upon his shoulders.Numerous Popes have been depicted in paintings in the exact same manner. There are also some paintings and statues of Mary doing same
35. Sun Worship used the symbols of the "Unicorn, Peacock, and Phoenix" to signify some of their sun godsSymbols of the "Unicorn, Peacock, and Phoenix" used to symbolize the "communion" of Christ are found carved in gold in many churches on doors or chapels as well as the small sanctuary buildings housing the Eucharist or wafer god of Rome
36. Crescent moon used to signify moon goddess "Nanna" was depicted in numerous paintings, etchings, carvings and statues. It was also used to cradle the sun god in wafer form before the people for worshipThe crescent is also used to cradle Eucharist in the Monstrance of the Roman Catholic church, and is paraded before the people for worship. It is also seen in countless paintings, etchings, carvings, and sculptures
37. The three letters "S.F.S" within a small blaze was used to represent the universal mystery for the number "6" in the Sun Worship mysteriesS.F.S in a small blaze is boldly carved into the Vatican Monstrance for all to see in the Vatican museum as well as many monstrance's in churches the world over
38. Alternating rays of the sun burst used to represent unity of "man and woman" common in all aspects of Sun Worship. (Curved ray = female "yonic" Straight ray = male "phallic")The monstrance of Catholicism, as well as many paintings and sculptures all depict same rays of both the "phallic and yonic" symbol can be found literally all over the Roman Catholic churches.
39. Carvings of "nature spirits" (fauns or satyrs) depicting a horned, hoofed-god were a common feature in all Sun Worship churchesCarvings of "nature spirits" (fauns or satyrs) depicting a horned, hoofed-god are found all over the Treasury of the Vatican beneath St Peters square as well as many Cathedrals around the world
40. The statues of a "Madonna" can be found in all Sun Worship churches as well as the Egyptian Madonna, Isis, with her son Horus, or Hindu churches with Divaki and her son KrishnaMary is found in all Catholic churches holding baby Jesus wearing the same clothing, as well as Jesus making the same hand signals
41. The statue of Zeus holds symbol of thunder and a lightening bolt Pagans taught symbolised his position as a god.Mary has been depicted in many statues in same manner all throughout the Vatican as well as many churches
42. Sun Worship have demi-gods holding crooked diving staffs that represent the serpent as well as the lightening boltThe Pope himself carries the exact same staff today. (serpent crosiers) He is photographed often with it as well
43. In Sun Worship Rome you would find, Adad, Enlil, Baal, Neptune, Poseidon and other "gods" of storm and sea being depicted as carrying tridents in their handsCrosses as well as statues of Jesus and Mary in Cathedrals all over the world carved with tridents on them. There is even a gold statue of baby Jesus in the Vatican with three tridents coming out of his head. All three tridents also depict the phallic and yonic symbolism as well in that statue. They even curved the forks to make that fact known.
44. Hand gestures in the form of a trident can be found depicted in Sun Worship gods such as Jupiter, Buddah, Appollo, and Hindu diety's as well. They are called "votive hands" in pagan templesStatue of St. Peter (Originally the old Jupiter statue of Rome) as well as millions of other statues, paintings, photos, and videos of everyone from Jesus and Mary to priests, cardinals,bishops, all the Popes, Vatican guards, and even lay people themselves in the Catholic church can be seen holding up the three finger trident salute of pagan Rome. (Now called the salute to the Trinity)
45. Pine cones used to represent the deity of a solar god Osiris, Bacchus, Dionysus, as well as Mexican gods, Hindu gods, and Assyrian gods can be found all throughout Sun Worship RomeThe largest pine cone sculpture in the world is found in the "Court of the pine cone" at the Vatican. The pine cone is also found carved into the crooked pagan staff (serpent crosier) of the Popes of Rome. In fact the pine cone is found all throughout the Vatican as well as Cathedrals as decoration. The staff the pope holds with the deformed Jesus and crooked cross on it has a pine cone under the base of the cross.
46. Oanne, the Babylonian fish-god (half man half fish) was depicted by Sun Worship high priests by wearing a fish head mitre (head dress) upon a mans head to symbolize man and fish joining when the "sun god" set into the ocean. (Neptune = case in point. Half man half fish) One particular Biblical deity that confirms this is "Dagon" found in 1Samuel. (Dag=fish On=sun)Mitres or head dresses that are worn by all Popes of Catholicism are an exact duplicate of these Dagon head dresses.
47. The Roman sun-god face with the alternating yonic and phallic symbols surrounding his head was found carved in excavated Roman bath houses in England. It is also found as "Apollo" on the facade of the Pergamum Museum in East Berlin. Almost all Catholic churches have the exact same carving above their pulpits, pillars, on statues, as well as carved into ceilings above altars. Some Catholic churches actually have it carved into the Eucharist itself. There is also a statue in Rome of Mary cradling the face within a blaze in her arms as if he is her child. Plus, many Weather reporters use this face inside a solar blaze as a graphic for their weather reports
48. Statues of the Romanized Egyptians Isis with globes in her hand, Hercules as a solar deity carried the very same globe in his hand, and the Persian sun-god Mithra is also depicted with the globe in his hand as a sign he is ruler of the Universe.The Vatican has a solid gold statue of Jesus with the globe in hand, a black marble statue called "the black virgin of Montserrat" and a statue of a "child Jesus" with globe in hand as well as countless other statues all over the world with Mary and others holding the globe
49. Coptic shells were carved to symbolize the Universe as well. Roman grave stones used them to represent the Heavens. Statues of Atlas can be found carrying the "universe" shell upon his shoulders. Sun Worship Rome carved Poseidon with the shell as part of his head. Venus was said to be born from within a Coptic shell.St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican has this Pagan symbol within the papal crest upon the wall. The Coptic shell is also found over the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. This cosmic symbol is often used as a font for holding holy water in Catholic churches the world over. They even have statues of angels holding this pagan symbol filled with holy water
50. The large evil eye can be found carved on a Roman sarcophagus in the National Archaeological Museum in Rome Italy. Masonic pendants have them as well. Hathor, the "eye of Osiris" can be found all over Egyptian temple. It was commonly used as protection against evil magicThis very same evil eye within the pyramid is found on Roman Catholic pulpits, ceilings, altars, doors, pendants, medals, etc. It is also on the back of the dollar bill of the USA on the left side floating above an unfinished pyramid.
51. The multi-level crown of the high Pagan priest was first worn by old Babylonian gods in 1800BC. The horned tiara was carved atop Assyrian winged-bull cherubims as well. The Jewish Kabbalistic solar deity wore this very same tiara, as did Krishna.The bronze tomb of Pope Sixtus depicts his dead body in bronze with this three ringed tiara on his head. On that tiara you can also see 6 serpents upon it. All the Popes have worn the tiara as a symbol of their authority as "gods of the earth, heaven, and hell." Hence, the "three rings" upon it. The Vatican has a solid gold tiara on display in the Vatican treasury at all times. This is the very crown the Pope will hand to Antichrist when he arrives to impersonate Jesus Christ in the days ahead.
52. Quetzalcoatl, "the lord of life and death" in the Aztec and Toltec cultures of 1000 AD had an opened chest with an exposed heart displayed in his statues. This was believed to be nourishment offered to the sun gods.Literally hundreds of thousands of statues, paintings, posters, lithographs, rings, medals, and icons have Jesus as well as Mary depicted in the exact same manner with what the Catholic church calls "The sacred heart." Notice that these "sacred hearts" also have the symbols of the sun god Mithra glowing rather boldly behind them at all times.
53. Assyrian carvings show eagles as genies hovering over the dead. Their "book of the dead" depicts just such a picture on its cover.Eagles are used as symbols all over the Roman Catholic church. See Rev 18:2 for it speaks of the Vatican as the "hold of ever foul spirit, and a cage of ever unclean and hateful bird."

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<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>CATALOGUE OF ROME'S UNSCRIPTURAL DOCTRINES
AND DATES OF THEIR INCEPTION
1. Prayers for the dead300 A.D.
2. Sign of the Cross310 A.D.
3. Wax votive candles320 A.D.
4. Veneration of saints and angels375 A.D.
5. Mary declared "Mother of God"431 A.D.
6. Priests begin to wear vestments500 A.D.
7. Worship in Latin600 A.D.
8. Temporal power of Papacy granted by Phocas610 A.D.
9. Feast days in honour of Mary650 A.D.
10. Kissing of the Pope's feet709 A.D.
11. Temporal power of Papacy confirmed750 A.D.
12. Adoration of Mary, saints, images and relics
legalised by 2nd Council of Nicea
788 A.D.
13. Holy water850 A.D.
14. Veneration of St. Joseph890 A.D.
15. Baptism of bells965 A.D.
16. Canonization of dead saints995 A.D.
17. Fasting on Fridays and Lent998 A.D.
18. Rosary beads1090 A.D.
19. Pope Boniface VII decrees celibacy of priests1097 A.D.
20. Inquisition of heretics1184 A.D.
21. Sale of Indulgences1190 A.D.
22. Transubstantiation of the wafer1215 A.D.
23. Confession to a priest1215 A.D.
24. Adoration of the host (Wafer God)1220 A.D.
25. Bible forbidden and placed on index of forbidden books --
by Council of Valencia
1229 A.D.
26. Red hats for Cardinals1245 A.D.
27. Feast of Corpus Christi1264 A.D.
28. The Miraculous scapular1287 A.D.
29. Roman church as the only true church1303 A.D.
30. Cup forbidden to laity at Communion1415 A.D.
31. Purgatory decreed by Council of Florence1439 A.D.
32. Doctrine of the seven sacraments1439 A.D.
33. Tradition of equal authority to the Bible1545 A.D.
34. Justification by works and not faith alone1545 A.D.
35. Creed of Pope Plus IV makes all the unscriptural
doctrines of Council of Trent binding
1560 A.D.
36. Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary1854 A.D.
37. Papal infallibility1870 A.D.
38. Papal decree on mixed marriages -- all marriages not
celebrated by a Roman priest declared null and void
1908 A.D.
39. Pope reaffirms Mary as Mother of God1931 A.D.
40. Assumption of the Virgin Mary1950 A.D.
Two Occult Powers United For Final World ControlClick here
America as a Religious Refuge:
The Seventeenth Century






[ PART 1 ] [ PART 2 ]


Many of the British North American colonies that eventually formed the United States of America were settled in the seventeenth century by men and women, who, in the face of European persecution, refused to compromise passionately held religious convictions and fled Europe. The New England colonies, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland were conceived and established "as plantations of religion." Some settlers who arrived in these areas came for secular motives--"to catch fish" as one New Englander put it--but the great majority left Europe to worship God in the way they believed to be correct. They enthusiastically supported the efforts of their leaders to create "a city on a hill" or a "holy experiment," whose success would prove that God's plan for his churches could be successfully realized in the American wilderness. Even colonies like Virginia, which were planned as commercial ventures, were led by entrepreneurs who considered themselves "militant Protestants" and who worked diligently to promote the prosperity of the church.















EUROPEAN PERSECUTION



Murder of David van der 

Leden.., 1554. Martelaers Spiegel Execution of Mennonites
This engraving depicts the execution of David van der Leyen and Levina Ghyselins, described variously as Dutch Anabaptists or Mennonites, by Catholic authorities in Ghent in 1554. Strangled and burned, van der Leyen was finally dispatched with an iron fork. Bracht's Martyr's Mirror is considered by modern Mennonites as second only in importance to the Bible in perpetuating their faith. Murder of David van der Leyen and Levina Ghyselins, Ghent, 1554
Engraving by J. Luyken, from T. J. V. Bracht (or Thieleman van Braght), Het Bloedig Tooneel De Martelaers Spiegel. . . .
Amsterdam: J. van der Deyster, et al., 1685
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (1)







A Jesuit, disemboweled in 

Scotland, 1615. Tanner, Societas Jesu Usque ad Sanguinis (Prague, 1675) A Jesuit Disemboweled
Jesuits like John Ogilvie (Ogilby) (1580-1615) were under constant surveillance and threat from the Protestant governments of England and Scotland. Ogilvie was sentenced to death by a Glasgow court and hanged and mutilated on March 10, 1615.
John Ogilvie (Ogilby), Societas Jesu, 1615
Engraving from Mathias Tanner, Societas Jesu usque ad sanguinis et vitae profusionem Militans. . . .
Prague: Typis Universitatis Carolo-Ferdinandeae, 1675
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (4)
The religious persecution that drove settlers from Europe to the British North American colonies sprang from the conviction, held by Protestants and Catholics alike, that uniformity of religion must exist in any given society. This conviction rested on the belief that there was one true religion and that it was the duty of the civil authorities to impose it, forcibly if necessary, in the interest of saving the souls of all citizens. Nonconformists could expect no mercy and might be executed as heretics. The dominance of the concept, denounced by Roger Williams as "inforced uniformity of religion," meant majority religious groups who controlled political power punished dissenters in their midst. In some areas Catholics persecuted Protestants, in others Protestants persecuted Catholics, and in still others Catholics and Protestants persecuted wayward coreligionists. Although England renounced religious persecution in 1689, it persisted on the European continent. Religious persecution, as observers in every century have commented, is often bloody and implacable and is remembered and resented for generations.

Lutherans leaving 

Salzburg, 1731 The Expulsion of the Salzburgers
On October 31, 1731, the Catholic ruler of Salzburg, Austria, Archbishop Leopold von Firmian, issued an edict expelling as many as 20,000 Lutherans from his principality. Many propertyless Lutherans, given only eight days to leave their homes, froze to death as they drifted through the winter seeking sanctuary. The wealthier ones who were allowed three months to dispose of their property fared better. Some of these Salzburgers reached London, from whence they sailed to Georgia. Others found new homes in the Netherlands and East Prussia.






Lutherans leaving Salzburg, 1731
Engraving by David Böecklin from Die Freundliche Bewillkommung Leipzig: 1732
Rare Books Division. The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations (7)







Lutherans leaving 

Salzburg, 1731 - Right Page Lutherans leaving 

Salzburg, 1731 - Left Page A Pair of Salzburgers, Fleeing Their Homes
These religious refugees flee Salzburg carrying with them religious volumes. The man has under one arm a copy of the Augsburg Confession; under the other is a theological work by Johann Arndt (1555-1621). The woman is carrying the Bible. The legend between them says: "We are driven into exile for the Gospel's sake; we leave our homeland and are now in God's hands." At the top is a scriptural verse, Matthew 24:20. "but pray that your flight does not occur in the winter or on the Sabbath."








Salzburgische Emigranten [left page] [right page]
Engraving from [Christopher Sancke?], Ausführliche Historie derer Emigranten
oder Vertriebenen Lutheraner aus dem Erz-Bistum Salzburg
, Leipzig: 1732
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (8)







Massacre Fait a Sens en 

Bourgogne par la Populace au Mois d Avril 1562 . . . Persecution of Huguenots by Catholics
The slaughter of Huguenots (French Protestants) by Catholics at Sens, Burgundy in 1562 occurred at the beginning of more than thirty years of religious strife between French Protestants and Catholics. These wars produced numerous atrocities. The worst was the notorious St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in Paris, August 24, 1572. Thousands of Huguenots were butchered by Roman Catholic mobs. Although an accommodation between the two sides was sealed in 1598 by the Edict of Nantes, religious privileges of Huguenots eroded during the seventeenth century and were extinguished in 1685 by the revocation of the Edict. Perhaps as many as 400,000 French Protestants emigrated to various parts of the world, including the British North American colonies.








Massacre Fait a Sens en Bourgogne par la Populace au Mois d'Avril 1562 . . .
Lithograph in A. Challe, Histoire des Guerres du Calvinisme et de la Ligue dans l'Auxerrois,
le Sénonais et les autres contrées qui forment aujourd'hui le département de l'Yonne

Auxerre: Perriquet et Rouille, 1863
General Collections, Library of Congress (2)







Frightful Outrages 

perpetrated by the Huguenots in FrancePersecution of Catholics by Huguenots
In the areas of France they controlled, Huguenots at least matched the harshness of the persecutions of their Catholic opponents. Atrocities A, B, and C, depictions that are possibly exaggerated for use as propaganda, are located by the author in St. Macaire, Gascony. In scene A, a priest is disemboweled, his entrails wound up on a stick until they are torn out. In illustration B a priest is buried alive, and in C Catholic children are hacked to pieces. Scene D, alleged to have occurred in the village of Mans, was "too loathsome" for one nineteenth-century commentator to translate from the French. It shows a priest whose genitalia were cut off and grilled. Forced to eat his roasted private parts, the priest was then dissected by his torturers so they can observe him digesting his meal.








Frightful Outrages perpetrated by the Huguenots in France
Engraving from Richard Verstegen, Théâtre des Cruautez des Hérétiques de notre temps
Antwerp: Adrien Hubert, 1607
Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C. (3)







Massacre of the 

Protestant Martyrs at the Bridge over the River Bann in Ireland, 1641 Drowning of Protestants
Shown here is a depiction of the murder by Irish Catholics of approximately one hundred Protestants from Loughgall Parish, County Armagh, at the bridge over the River Bann near Portadown, Ulster. This atrocity occurred at the beginning of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. Having held the Protestants as prisoners and tortured them, the Catholics drove them "like hogs" to the bridge, where they were stripped naked and forced into the water below at swordspoint. Survivors of the plunge were shot.








Massacre of the Protestant Martyrs at the Bridge over the River Bann in Ireland, 1641
Engraving from Matthew Taylor, England's Bloody Tribunal: Or, Popish Cruelty Displayed . . . .
London: J. Cooke, 1772
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (5)







Die Societas Jesu in 

Europa, 1643-1644  [page 171] Die Societas Jesu in 

Europa, 1643-1644  [page 170] Persecution of Jesuits in England
In the image on the left is Brian Cansfield (1581-1643), a Jesuit priest seized while at prayer by English Protestant authorities in Yorkshire. Cansfield was beaten and imprisoned under harsh conditions. He died on August 3, 1643 from the effects of his ordeal. At the right is another Jesuit priest, Ralph Corbington (Corby) (ca. 1599-1644), who was hanged by the English government in London, September 17, 1644, for professing his faith.










Die Societas Jesu in Europa, 1643-1644 [left page] [right page]
from Mathias Tanner, Die Gesellshafft Jesu biss zur vergiessung ihres Blutes
wider den Gotzendienst Unglauben und Laster . . .

Prague: Carlo Ferdinandeischen Universitat Buchdruckeren, 1683
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (6)







The Burning of Master 

John Rogers Martyrdom of John Rogers
The execution in 1555 of John Rogers (1500-1555) is portrayed here in the 9th edition of the famous Protestant martyrology, Fox's Book of Martyrs. Rogers was a Catholic priest who converted to Protestantism in the 1530s under the influence of William Tyndale and assisted in the publication of Tyndale's English translations of the Bible. Burned alive at Smithfield on February 4, 1555, Rogers became the "first Protestant martyr" executed by England's Catholic Queen Mary. He was charged with heresy, including denial of the real presence of Christ in the sacrament of communion.










The Burning of Master John Rogers
Engraving from John Fox, The Third Volume of the Ecclesiastical History
containing the Acts and Monuments of Martyrs. . . .

London: Company of Stationers, 9th edition, 1684
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (9)







The Burning of Master 

John RogersJohn Rogers Portrayed in New England
Two centuries after John Rogers's execution, his ordeal, with depictions of his wife and ten children added to increase the pathos, became a staple of The New England Primer. The Primer supplemented the picture of Rogers' immolation with a long, versified speech, said to be the dying martyr's advice to his children, which urged them to "Keep always God before your Eyes" and to "Abhor the arrant Whore of Rome, and all her Blasphemies." This recommendation, read by generations of young New Englanders, doubtless helped to fuel the anti-Catholic prejudice that flourished in that region well into the nineteenth century.










Mr. John Rogers
Woodblock print from The New-England Primer Improved
Boston: A. Ellison, 1773
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (10)















CROSSING THE OCEAN TO KEEP THE FAITH:
THE PURITANS


Puritans were English Protestants who wished to reform and purify the Church of England of what they considered to be unacceptable residues of Roman Catholicism. In the 1620s leaders of the English state and church grew increasingly unsympathetic to Puritan demands. They insisted that the Puritans conform to religious practices that they abhorred, removing their ministers from office and threatening them with "extirpation from the earth" if they did not fall in line. Zealous Puritan laymen received savage punishments. For example, in 1630 a man was sentenced to life imprisonment, had his property confiscated, his nose slit, an ear cut off, and his forehead branded "S.S." (sower of sedition). Beginning in 1630 as many as 20,000 Puritans emigrated to America from England to gain the liberty to worship God as they chose. Most settled in New England, but some went as far as the West Indies. Theologically, the Puritans were "non-separating Congregationalists." Unlike the Pilgrims, who came to Massachusetts in 1620, the Puritans believed that the Church of England was a true church, though in need of major reforms. Every New England Congregational church was considered an independent entity, beholden to no hierarchy. The membership was composed, at least initially, of men and women who had undergone a conversion experience and could prove it to other members. Puritan leaders hoped (futilely, as it turned out) that, once their experiment was successful, England would imitate it by instituting a church order modeled after the New England Way. Richard Mather, 

Relief cut by John FosterRichard Mather
Richard Mather (1596-1669), minister at Dorchester, Massachusetts, 1636-1669, was a principal spokesman for and defender of the Congregational form of church government in New England. In 1648, he drafted the Cambridge Platform, the definitive description of the Congregational system. Mather's son, Increase (1639-1723), and grandson, Cotton (1663-1728), were leaders of New England Congregationalism in their generations. Richard Mather
Relief cut by John Foster. Copyprint
c. 1670

Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts (11)








Cottonus Matherus S. 

theologieae doctor regia societas Londonensis. . . . Cotton Mather
Cotton Mather (1663-1728), the best-known New England Puritan divine of his generation, was a controversial figure in his own time and remains so among scholars today. A formidable intellect and a prodigious writer, Mather published some 450 books and pamphlets. He was at the center of all of the major political, theological, and scientific controversies of his era. Mather has been accused, unfairly, of instigating the Salem witchcraft trials.
Cottonus Matherus S. theologieae doctor regia societas Londonensis. . . .
Mezzotint by Peter Pelham
Boston: 1728, restrike 1860
Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress (12)


Manuscript Sermon, 

Cotton Mather Sermon by Cotton Mather
Holograph manuscript on paper
Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (13)















THE BIBLE COMMONWEALTHS


The Bible and Holy Scriptures 

Conteyned in the Olde and Newe Testament. Geneva:  1560 The Geneva Bible
The Geneva Bible was published in English in Geneva in 1560 by English reformers who fled to the continent to escape persecutions by Queen Mary. Their leader was William Whittingham, who married a sister of John Calvin. The Geneva Bible was used by the Pilgrims and Puritans in New England until it was gradually replaced by the King James Bible. According to one twentieth-century scholar, "between 1560 . . . and 1630 no fewer than about two hundred editions of the Geneva Bible, either as a whole or of the New Testament separately, appeared. It was the Bible of Shakespeare and of John Bunyan and of Cromwell's Army and of the Pilgrim Fathers." The Bible and Holy Scriptures Conteyned in the Olde and Newe Testament.
Geneva: 1560
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (14)
The New England colonies have often been called "Bible Commonwealths" because they sought the guidance of the scriptures in regulating all aspects of the lives of their citizens. Scripture was cited as authority for many criminal statutes. Shown here are the two Bibles used in seventeenth-century New England and a seventeenth-century law code from Massachusetts that cites scripture.

<><><><><><><><>
The Holy Bible, 

conteyning the Old Testament and the New The King James Bible
The first edition of the King James Bible, also called the "Authorized Version," was composed by a committee of English scholars between 1607 and 1611. The first copy of the King James Bible known to have been brought into the colonies was carried by John Winthrop to Massachusetts in 1630. Gradually the King James Bible supplanted the Geneva Bible and achieved such a monopoly of the affections of the English-speaking peoples that a scholar in 1936 complained that many "seemed to think that the King James Version is the original Bible which God handed down out of heaven, all done up in English by the Lord himself."






The Holy Bible, conteyning the Old Testament and the New
London: Robert Baker, 1611Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (15)






The General Laws and 

Liberties of the Massachusets Colony: Revised and Reprinted [right page] The General Laws and 

Liberties of the Massachusets Colony: Revised and Reprinted [left page] Seventeenth-Century Laws of Massachusetts
Criminal laws in the early New England colonies were based on the scriptures, especially the Old Testament. Many civil laws and procedures were modelled after the English common law.











The General Laws and Liberties of the Massachusets Colony:
Revised and Reprinted [right page]
[left page]
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Samuel Green, 1672Law Library, Rare Book Collection, Library of Congress (16)






The Whole Booke of 

Psalmes Faithfully Translated into English Metre (Bay Psalm Book) The Bay Psalm Book
The first book published in British North America, what has become known as the Bay Psalm Book, was the work of Richard Mather and two other ministers who transformed the Psalms into verse so they could be sung in the Massachusetts churches. Shown here is one of the eleven surviving copies.








The Whole Booke of Psalmes Faithfully Translated into English Metre.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Stephen Daye, 1640
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (17)






The Holy Bible: 

Containing the Old Testament and the New,Translated into the Indian 

Language. . . . [right page] The Holy Bible: 

Containing the Old Testament and the New,Translated into the Indian 

Language. . . . [left page] Eliot's Algonquin Language Bible
Obedient to the New Testament command to preach the Gospel to all nations, ministers in all of the first British North American colonies strove to convert the local native populations to Christianity, often with only modest results. One of the most successful proselytizers was John Eliot (1604-1690), Congregational minister at Roxbury, Massachusetts. His translation of the Bible into the Algonquin Indian language is seen here. At one time Eliot ministered to eleven hundred "Praying Indians," organized into fourteen New England style towns.









The Holy Bible: Containing the Old Testament and the New,
Translated into the Indian Language. . . . [left page]
[right page]
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson, 1663
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (18)








[ PART 1 ] [ PART 2 ]

History of the Jesuits Before the 1773 Suppression

Italy

The history of the Jesuits in Italy was generally very peaceful. The only serious disturbances were those arising from the occasional quarrels of the civil governments with the ecclesiastical powers. St. Ignatius' first followers were immediately in great request to instruct the faithful, and to reform the clergy, monasteries, and convents. Though there was little organized or deep-seated mischief, the amount of lesser evils was immense; the possibility here and there of a catastrophe was evident. While the preachers and missionaries evangelized the country, colleges were established at Padua, Venice, Naples, Bologna, Florence, Parma, and other cities. On 20 April 1555, the University of Ferrara addressed to the Sorbonne a most remarkable testimony in favor of the order. St. Charles Borromeo was, after the popes, perhaps the most generous of all the patrons, and they freely put their best talents at his disposal. (For the difficulties about his seminary and with Fr. Guillo Mazarino, see Sylbain, "Hist. de S. Charles", iii, 53.) Juan de Vega, ambassador of Charles V at Rome, had learnt to know and esteem Ignatius there, and when he was appointed Viceroy of Sicily he brought Jesuits with him. A college was opened at Messina; success was marked, and its rules and methods were afterwards copied in other colleges. After fifty years the Society counted in Italy 86 houses and 2550 members. The chief trouble in Italy occurred in Venice at 1606, when Paul V laid the city under interdict for serious breaches of ecclesiastical immunities. The Jesuits and some other religious retired from the city, and the Senate, inspired by Paolo Sarpi, the disaffected friar, passed a decree of perpetual banishment against them. In effect, though peace was made ere long with the pope, it was fifty years before the Society could return. Italy, during the first two centuries of the Society was still the most cultured country in Europe, and the Italian Jesuits enjoyed a high reputation for learning and letters. The elder Segneri is considered the first of Italian preachers, and there are a number of others of the first class. Maffei, Torellino, Strada, Palavicino, and Bartoli have left historical works which are still highly prized. Between Bellarmine (d. 1621) and Zaccharia (d. 1795) Italian Jesuits of note in theology, controversy, and subsidiary sciences are reckoned by the score. They also claim a large proportion of the saints, martyrs, generals, and missionaries. (See also BELECIUS; BOLGENI; BOSCOVICH; POSSEVINUS; SCARAMELLI; VIVA.) Italy was divided into five provinces, with the following figures for the year 1749 (shortly before the beginning of the movement for the suppression of the Society); Rome 848; Naples 667; Sicily 775; Venice 707; Milan 625; total 3622 members, about one-half of whom were priests, with 178 houses.

Spain

Though the majority of Ignatius' companions were Spaniards, he did not gather them together in Spain, and the first Jesuits paid only passing visits there. In 1544, however, Father Aroaz, cousin of St. Ignatius and a very eloquent preacher, came with six companions, and then their success was rapid. On 1 September, 1547, Ignatius established the province of Spain with seven houses and about forty religious; St. Francis Borgia joined in 1548; in 1550, Lainez accompanied the Spanish troops in their African campaign. With rapid success came unexpected opposition. Melchior Cano, O.P., a theologian of European reputation, attacked the young order, which could make no effective reply, nor could anyone get the professor to keep the peace. But, very unpleasant as the trial was, it eventually brought advantage to the order, as it advertised it well in university circles, and moreover drew out defenders of unexpected efficiency, as Juan de la Peña of the Dominicans, and even their general, Fra Francisco Romero. The Jesuits continued to prosper, and Ignatius subdivided (29 September, 1554) the existing province into three, containing twelve houses and 139 religious. Yet there were internal troubles both here and in Portugal under Simon Rodriguez, which gave the founder anxieties. In both countries the first houses had been established before the Constitutions and rules were committed to writing. It was inevitable therefore that the discipline introduced by Aroaz and Rodriguez should have differed somewhat from that which was being introduced by Ignatius at Rome. In Spain, the good offices of Borgia and the visits of Father Nadal did much to effect a gradual unification of the system, though not without difficulty. These troubles, however, affected the higher officials of the order rather than the rank and file, who were animated by the highest motives. The great preacher Ramirez is said to have attracted 500 vocations to religious orders at Salamanca in the year 1564, about 50 of them to the Society. There were 300 Spanish Jesuits at the death of Ignatius in 1556; and 1200 at the close of Borgia's generalate in 1572. Under the non-Spanish generals who followed, there was an unpleasant recrudescence of the nationalistic spirit. Considering the quarrels which daily arose between Spain and other nations, there can be no wonder at such ebullitions. As has been explained under Acquaviva, Philip of Spain lent his aid to the discontented parties, of whom the virtuous José de Acosta was the spokesman, Fathers Hernéndez, Dionysius Vásquez, Henríquez, and Mariana the real leaders. Their ulterior object was to secure a separate comissary-general for Spain. This trouble was not quieted till the fifth congregation, 1593, after which ensued the great debates de auxiliis with the Dominicans, the protagonists on both sides being Spaniards. (See Congregatio de Auxiliis; Grace, Controversies on.)
Serious as these troubles were in their own sphere, they must not be allowed to obscure the fact that in the
Society, as in all Catholic organizations of that day, Spaniards played the greatest roles. When we enumerate their great men and their great works, they defy all comparison. This comparisons gains further force when we remember that the success of the Jesuits in Flanders and in the parts of Italy then united with the Spanish crown was largely due to Spanish Jesuits; and the same is true of the Jesuits in Portugal, which country with its far-stretching colonies was also under the Spanish crown from 1581 to 1640, though neither the organization of the Portuguese Jesuits nor the civil government of the country itself was amalgamated with those of Spain. But it was in the more abstract sciences that the Spanish genius shone with the greatest lustre; Toledo (d. 1596), Molina (1600), de Valentia (1603), Vásquez* (1604), Francisco Suárez (1617), Ripalda (1648), de Lugo (1660) (qq.v.)--these form a group of unsurpassed brilliance, and there are quite a number of others almost equally remarkable. In moral theology, Sánchez* (1610), Azor (1603), Salas (1612), Castro Palao (1633), Torres (Turrianus, 1635), Escobar y Mendoza (1669). In Scripture, Maldonado (1583), Salmerón* (1585), Francisco Ribera (1591), Prado (1595), Pereira (1610), Sancio (1628), Pineda (1637). In secular literature, mention may be made of de Isla and Baltasar Gracián (1584-1658), author of "The Art of Worldly Wisdom" (El oráculo) and "El criticon", which seems to have suggested the idea of "Robinson Crusoe" to Defoe.
Following the almost universal custom of the late seventeenth century, the kings of
Spain generally had Jesuit confessors; but their attempts at reform were too often rendered ineffective by court intrigues. This was especially the case with the Austrian, Father — later Cardinal — Everard Nidhard (confessor of Maria Anna of Austria) and Pere Daubenton, confessor of Philip V. After the era of the great writers, the chief glory of the Spanish Jesuits is to be found in their large and flourishing foreign missions in Peru, Chile, New Grenada, the Philippines, Paraguay, Quito, which will be noted under "missions", below. There were served by 2171 Jesuits at the time of the Suppression. Spain itself in 1749 was divided into five provinces: Toledo with 659 members, Castile, 718; Aragon, 604; Seville, 662; Sardinia, 300; total 2943 members (1342 priests) in 158 houses.

Portugal

At the time when Ignatius founded his order Portugal was in her heroic age. Her rulers were full of enterprise, her universities were full of life, her trade routes extended over the then known world. The Jesuits were welcomed with enthusiasm, and made good use of their opportunities. St. Francis Xavier, traversing Portuguese colonies and settlements, proceeded to make his splendid missionary conquests. These were continued by his confreres in such distant lands as Abyssinia, the Congo, South Africa, China, and Japan, by Fathers Nunhes, Silveria, Acosta, Fernandes, and others. At Coimbra, and afterwards at Evora, the Society made the most surprising progress under such professors as Pedro de Fonseca (d. 1599), Luis Molina (d. 1600), Christovão Gil, Sebastão de Abreu, etc., and from here also comes the first comprehensive series of philosophical and theological textbooks for students. (See CONIMBRICENSES). With the advent of Spanish monarchy, 1581, the Portuguese Jesuits suffered no less than the rest of their country. Luis Carvalho joined the Spanish opponents of Father Acquaviva, and when the apostolic collector, Ottavio Accoramboni, launched an interdict against the government of Lisbon, the Jesuits, especially Diego de Arida, became involved in the undignified strife. One the other hand, they played an honorable part in the restoration of Portugal's liberty in 1640, and on its success, the difficulty was to restrain King João IV from giving Father Manuel Fernandes a seat in the Cortes, and employing others in diplomatic missions. Among these Fathers were Antonio Vieira, one of Portugal's most eloquent orators. Up to the Suppression, Portugal and her colonists supported the following missions, of which further notices will be found elsewhere, Goa (originally India), Malabar, Japan, China, Brazil, Maranhao. The Portuguese provinces in 1749 numbered 861 members (381 priests) in 49 houses. (See also Vieira, Antonio; Gabriel Malagrida.)

France

The first Jesuits, although almost all Spaniards, were trained and made their first vows in France, and the fortunes of the Society in France have always been of exceptional importance for the body at large. In early years its young men were sent to Paris to be educated there as Ignatius had been. They were hospitably received by Guillaume de Prat, bishop of Claremont, whose hôtel grew into the Collège de Clermont (1550), afterwards known as Luis-le-Grand. Padre Viola was the first rector, but the public classes did not begin until 1564. The Parlement of Paris and the Sorbonne resisted vehemently the letters patent, which Henry II and after him Francis II, and Charles IX had granted with little difficulty. Meanwhile the same Bishop of Claremont had founded a second college at Billom in his own diocese, which was opened 26 July, 1556, before the first general congregation. Colleges at Mauriac and Pamiers soon followed, and between 1565 and 1575, other at Avignon, Chambéry, Toulouse, Rodez, Verdun, Nevers, Bordeaux, Pont-à-Mousson, while Fathers Coudret, Auger, Roger, and Pelletier distinguished themselves by their apostolic labours. The utility of the order was also shown in the Colloquies at Poissy (1561) and at St-Germain-en-Laye by Fathers Lainez and Possevinus, and again by Father Brouet, who, with two companions, gave his life in the service of plague-stricken Paris in 1562, while Father Maldonado lectured with striking effect both at Paris and Bourges.
Meantime serious trouble was growing up with the
University of Paris due to a number of petty causes, jealousy of the new teachers, rivalry with Spain, Gallican resentment at the enthusiastic devotion of the Jesuits to Rome, and perhaps a spice of Calvinism. A lawsuit for the closing of Claremont College was instituted before the Parlement, and Estienne Pasquier, counsel for the university, delivered a celebrated plaidoyer against the Jesuits. The parlement, though then favorable to the order, was anxious not to irritate the university, and came to an indecisive settlement (5 April, 1565). The Jesuits, despite the royal license, were not to be incorporated in the university, but they might continue their lectures. Unsatisfied with this, the university retaliated by preventing the Jesuit scholars from obtaining degrees and later (1573-6), a feud was maintained against Father Maldonado (q.v.) which was eventually closed by the intervention of Gregory XIII who had also in 1572 raised the college of Pont-a-Mousson to the dignity of a university. But meantime, the more or less incessant wars of religion were devastating the land, and from time to time, several Jesuits, especially Auger and Manare, were acting as army chaplains. They had no connection with the Massacre of St. Bartholomew (1572); but Maldonado was afterward deputed to receive Henry of Navarre (afterward Henry IV) into the Church, and in many places the Fathers were able to shelter refugees in their houses; and by remonstrance and intercession, they saved many lives.
Immediately after his
coronation (1575), Henry III chose Father Auger for his confessor, and for exactly two hundred years the Jesuit court confessor became an institution in France, and as French fashions were then influential, every Catholic court in time followed the precedent. Considering the difficulty of any sort of control over autocratic sovereigns, the institution of a court confessor was well adapted to the circumstances. The occasional abuses of the office which occurred are chiefly to be attributed to the exorbitant powers invested in the autocrat, which no human guidance could save from periods of decline and degradation.But this was more clearly seen later on. A crisis for French Catholicism was near when, after the death of François, Duke of Anjou, 1584, Henri de Navarre, now an apostate, stood heir to the throne which the feeble Henry III could not possibly retain for long. Sides were taken with enthusiasm, and La sainte ligue was formed for the defense of the Church (see League, The; Guise, House of; France). It was hardly to be expected that the Jesuits to a man would have remained cool, when the whole populace was in a ferment of excitement. It was morally impossible to keep the Jesuit friends of the exaltés on both sides from participating in their extreme measures. Auger and Claude Matthieu were respectively in the confidence of the two contending parties, the Court and the League. Father Acquaviva succeeded in withdrawing both from France, though with great difficulty and considerable loss of favor on either side. One or two he could not control for some time, and of these, the most remarkable was Henri Samerie, who had been chaplain to Mary Stuart, and became later army chaplain in Flanders. For a year he passed as diplomatic agent from one prince of the League to another, evading, by their means and the favor of Sixtus V, all Acquaviva's efforts to get him back to regular life. But in the end, discipline prevailed, and Acquaviva's orders to respect the consciences of both sides enabled the Society to keep friends with all.
Henry IV made much use of the
Jesuits (especially Toledo, Possevinus, and Commolet), although they had favored the League, to obtain canonical absolution and the conclusion of peace; and in time (1604) took Pere Coton as his confessor. This, however, is an anticipation. After the attempt on Henri's life by Jean Chastel (27 December, 1594), the Parlement of Paris took the opportunity of attacking the Society with fury, perhaps to disguise the fact that they had been among the most extreme of the Leaguers, while the Society was among the more moderate. It was pretended that the Society was responsible for Chastel's crime, because he had once been their student: though in truth he was then at the university. The librarian of the Jesuit college, Jean Guignard, was hanged, 7 January, 1595, because an old book against the king was found in the cupboard of his room. Antoine* Arnauld, the elder, brought into his plaidoyer before the Parlement every possible calumny against the Society and the Jesuits were ordered to leave Paris in three days and France in a fortnight. The decree was executed in the districts subject to the Parlement of Paris, but not elsewhere. The king, not yet being canonically absolved, did not then interfere. But the pope, and many others, pleaded earnestly for the revocation of the decree against the order. The matter was warmly debated and eventually Henry himself gave the permission for its readmission, on 1 September, 1603. He now made great use of the Society, founded for it the great College of La Feche, encouraged its missions at home, in Normandy and Béarn, and the commencement of the foreign missions in Canada and the Levant.
The
Society immediately began to increase rapidly, and counted thirty-nine colleges, besides other houses, and 1135 religious before the king fell under Ravaillac's dagger (1610). This was made the occasion for new assaults by the Parlement, who availed themselves of Marianna's book, "De rege", to attack the Society as defenders of regicide. Francisco Suárez's "Defensio fidei" was burnt in 1614. The young King, Louis XIII, was too weak to curb the parlementaires, but both he and the people of France favored the Society so effectively that at the time of his death in 1643 their numbers had trebled. They now had five provinces, and that of Paris alone counted over 13,000 scholars in its colleges. The confessors during this reign were changed not unfrequently by the manoeuvres of Richilieu, and included Peres Arnoux de Séguiron, Suffren, Caussin, Sirmond, Dinet. Richilieu's policy of supporting the German Protestants against Catholic Austria (which Caussin resisted) proved the occasion for angry polemics. The German Jesuit Jacob Keller was believed (though proof of authorship is altogether wanting) to have written two strong pamphlets, "Mysteria politica", and "Admonitio ad Ludovicum XIII", against France. The books were burned by the hangman, as in 1626 was a work of Father Santarelli, which touched awkwardly on the pope's power to pronounce against princes.
The politico-religious history of the
Society under Louis XIV centres round Jansenism (see JANSENIUS AND JANSENISM) and the lives of the king's confessors, especially Pères Annat (1845-60), Ferrier (1660-74), La Chaise (q.v.) (1674-1709), and Michel Le Tellier (1709-15). On 24 May, 1656, Blaise Pascal published the first of his "Provinciales". The five propositions of Jansenism having been condemned by papal authority, Pascal could no longer defend them openly, and found the most effective method of retaliation was satire, raillery, and countercharge against the Society. He concluded with the usual evasion that Jansenius did not write in the sense attributed to him by the pope. The "Provinciales" were the first noteworthy example in the French language of satire written in studiously polite and moderate terms; and their great literary merit appealed powerfully to the French love of cleverness. Too light to be effectively answered by refutation, they were at the same time sufficiently envenomed to do great and lasting harm; although they have frequently been proved to misrepresent the teachings of the Jesuits by omissions, alterations, interpolations, and false contexts, notably by Dr, Karl Weiss, of Gratz, "P. Antonio de Escobar y Mendoza als Moraltheologe in Pascals Beleuchtung und im Lichte der Wahrheit".
The cause of the
Jesuits was also compromised by the various quarrels of Louis XIV with Innocent XI, especially concerning the régale, and the Gallican articles of 1682. (See LOUIS XIV and INNOCENT XI. The different standpoint of these articles may help to illustrate the differences of view prevalent within the order on this subject.) At first there was a tendency on both sides to spare the French Jesuits. They were not at that time asked to subscribe to the Gallican articles, while Innocent overlooked their adherence to the king, in hopes that their moderation might bring about peace. But it was hardly possible that they should escape all troubles under a domination so pressing. Louis conceived the idea of uniting all the French Jesuits under a vicar, independent of the general in Rome. Before making this known, he recalled all his Jesuit subjects, and all, even the assistant, Pere Fontaine, returned to France. Then he proposed the separation, which Thyrsus González* formally refused. The provincials of the five French Jesuit provinces implored the king to desist, which he eventually did. It has been alleged that papal decree forbidding the reception of novices between 1684-6 was issued in punishment of the French Jesuits giving support to Louis (Cretineau-Joly). The matter is alluded to in the Brief of Suppression; but it is still obscure and would seem rather to be connected with the Chinese rites than with the difficulties in France. Except for the interdict on their schools in Paris, 1716-29, by Cardinal de Noailles, the fortunes of the order were very calm and prosperous during the ensuing generation. In 1749, the French Jesuits were divided into five provinces with members as follows: France, 891; Acquitane, 437; Lyons 772; Toulouse 655; Champagne, 594; total 3350 (1763 priests) in 158 houses.

Germany

The first Jesuit to labour here was Bl. Peter Faber, who won to their ranks Bl. Peter Canisius, to whose lifelong diligence and eminent holiness the rise and prosperity of the German provinces are especially due. In 1556, there were two provinces, South Germany (Germania Superior, up to and including Mainz) and North Germany (Germania Inferior, including Flanders). The first residence of the Society was at Cologne (1544), the first college at Vienna (1552). The Jesuit colleges were soon so popular that they were demanded on every side, faster than they could be supplied, and the greater groups of these became fresh provinces. Austria branched off in 1563, Bohemia in 1623, Flanders had become two separate provinces by 1612, and Rhineland also two provinces by 1626. At that time the five German-speaking provinces numbered over 100 colleges and academies. But meanwhile all Germany was in turmoil with the Thirty Years War, which had gone so far, generally, in favor of the Catholic powers. In 1629 came the Restitutionsedikt (see Counter-Reformation) by which the emperor redistributed with papal sanction the old church property which had been recovered from the usurpation of the Protestants. The Society received large grants, but was not much benefited thereby. Some bitter controversies ensued with the ancient holders of the properties, who were often Benedictines; and many of the acquisitions were lost again during the next period of the war.
The sufferings of the order during the second period were grievous. Even before the
war they had been systematically persecuted and driven into exile by the Protestant princes, whenever these had the opportunity. In 1618 they were banished from Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia; and after the advent of Gustavus Adolphus the violence to which they were liable increased. The fanatical proposal of banishing them forever from Germany was made by him in 1631, and again at Frankfurt in 1633; and this counsel of hatred acquired a hold which it still exercises over the German Protestant mind. The initial success of the Catholics of course excited further antipathies, especially as the great generals Tilly, Wallenstein, and Piccolomini had been Jesuit pupils. During the siege of Prague, 1648, Father Plachy successfully trained a corps of students for the defense of the town, and was awarded the mural crown for his services. The province of Upper Rhine alone lost seventy-seven Fathers in field hospitals or during the fighting. After the peace of Westphalia, 1648, the tide of the Counter-Reformation had more or less spent itself. The foundation period had passed and there are few external events to chronicle. The last notable conversion was that of Prince Frederick Augustus of Saxony (1697), afterwards King of Poland. Fathers Vota and Salerno (afterwards a cardinal) were intimately connected with his conversion. Within the walls of their colleges and in the churches throughout the country the work of teaching, writing and preaching continued unabated, while the storms of controversy rose and fell, and the distant missions, especially China and the Spanish missions of South America, claimed scores of the noblest and most high-spirited. To this period belong Philip Jenigan (d. 1704) and Franz Hunolt (d. 1740), perhaps the greatest German Jesuit preachers; Tschupick, Joseph Sneller, and Ignatius Wurz acquired an almost equally great reputation in Austria. In 1749, the German provinces counted as follows: Germania Superior, 1060; Lower Rhine, 772; Upper Rhine, 497; Austria, 1772; Bohemia 1239; total 5340 members (2558 priests) in 307 houses. (See also the index volume under the title "Society of Jesus", and such names as Becan, Byssen, Brouwer, Dreschel, Lohner, etc.)
Hungary was included in the province of
Austria. The chief patron of the order was Cardinal Pázmány. The conversion of Sweden was several times attempted by German Jesuits, but they were not allowed to stay in the country. King John III, however, who had married a Polish princess, was actually converted (1578) through several missions by Fathers Warsiewicz and Possevinus, the latter accompanied by the English Father William Good; but the king had not the courage to persevere. Queen Christina (q.v.) in 1654 was brought into the Church, largely through the ministrations of Fathers Macedo and Casati, having given up her throne for this purpose. The Austrian Fathers maintained a small residence at Moscow from 1684 to 1718, which had been opened by Father Vota. (See POSSEVINUS).

Poland

Bl. Peter Canisius, who visited Poland in the train of the legate Mantuato in 1558, succeeded in animating King Sigismund to energetic defense of Catholicism, and Bishop Hosius of Ermland founded the College of Braunsburg in 1584, which with that of Vilna (1569) became centres of Catholic activity in northeastern Europe. King Stephen Bathory, an earnest patron of the order, founded a Ruthenian College at Vilna in 1575. From 1588, Father Peter Skarga (d. 1612) made a great impression by his preaching. There were violent attacks against the Society in the revolution of 1607, but after the victory of Sigismund III the Jesuits more than recovered the ground lost; and in 1608 the province could be subdivided into Lithuania and Poland. The animus against the Jesuits however, vented itself in Cracow in 1612, through the scurrilous satire entitled "Monita secreta", (q.v.). King Casimir, who had once been a Jesuit, favored the Society not a little; so too did Sobieski, and his campaign to relieve Vienna from the Turks (1683) was due in part to the exhortations of Father Vota, his confessor. Among the great Polish missionaries are numbered Benedict Herbst (d. 1593) and Bl. Andrew Bobola. In 1756 the Polish provinces were readjusted into four: Greater Poland, Lesser Poland, Lithuania, Massovia, counting in all 2359 religious. The Polish Jesuits, besides their own missions, had others in Stockholm, Russia, the Crimea, Constantinople, and Persia. (See Cracow, University of.)

Belgium

The first settlement was at Louvaun in 1542, whither the students in Paris retired on the declaration of war between France and Spain. In 1556 Ribadeneira obtained legal authorization for the Society from Philip II, and in 1564 Flanders became a separate province. Its beginning, however, were by no means uniformly prosperous. The Duke of Alva was cold and suspicious, while the wars of the revolting provinces told heavily against it. At the pacification of Ghent (1576), the Jesuits were offered an oath against the rulers of the Netherlands, which they firmly refused, and were driven from their houses. But this at last won for them Philip's favor, and under Alexander Farnese fortune turned completely in their favour. Father Oliver Manare became a leader fitted for the occasion, whom Acquaviva himself greeted as "Pater Provinciae". In a few years, a number of well-established colleges had been founded, and in 1612 the Province had to be subdivided. The Flandro-Belgica counted sixteen colleges and the Gallo-Belgica eighteen. All but two were day schools with no preparatory colleges for small boys. They were worked with comparatively small staffs of five or six, sometimes only three professors, though their scholars might count as many hundreds. Teaching was gratuitous, but a sufficient foundation for the support of the teachers was a necessary preliminary. Though preparatory and elementary education was not yet in fashion, the care taken in teaching catechism was most elaborate. The classes were regular, and at intervals enlivened with music, ceremonies, mystery plays, and processions. These were often attended by the whole magistracy in robes of state, while the bishop himself would attend at the distribution of honours. A special congregation was formed at Antwerp in 1648, to organize ladies and gentlemen, nobles and bourgeois, into Sunday school teachers, and in that year their classes counted in all 3000 children. Similar organizations existed all over the country. The first communion classes formed an extension of the catechisms. In Bruges, Brussels, and Antwerp, between 600 and 1600 attended the communion classes.
Jesuit congregations of the Blessed Virgin were first instituted at Rome by a Belgian Jesuit, John Leunis, in 1563. His native country soon took them up with enthusiasm. Each college had normally four:
  • for scholars (more often two, one for older, one for younger);
  • for young men on leaving;
  • for grown-up men (more often several) — for workingmen, for tradesmen, professional classes, nobles, priests, doctors, etc., etc.;
  • for small boys.
In days before hospitals, workhouses, and elementary education were regularly organized, and supported by the State; before burial-clubs, trade-unions, and the like provided special help for the working man, these sodalities discharged the functions of such institutions, in homely fashion perhaps, but gratuitously, bringing together all ranks for the relief of indigence. Some of these congregations were exceedingly popular, and their registers still show the names of the first artists and savants of the time (Teniers, Van Dyck, Rubens, Lipsius, etc.). Archdukes and kings and even four emperors are found among the sodalists of Louvain. Probably the first permanent corps of Army chaplains was that established by Farnese in 1587. It consisted of ten to twenty-five chaplains, and was styled the "Missio castrensis," and lasted as an institution until 1660. The "Missio navalis" was a kindred institution for the navy. The Flandro-Belgian province numbered 542 in 1749 (232 priests) in 30 houses: Gallo-Belgian, 471 (266 priests) in 25 houses.

England

Founded in Rome after the English schism had commenced, the Society had great difficulty in finding an entrance into England, though Ignatius and Ribadeneira visited the country in 1531 and 1558, and prayers for its conversion have been recited throughout the order to the present day (now under the common designation of "Northern Nations"). Other early Jesuits exerted themselves on behalf of the English seminary at Douai and of the refugees at Louvain. The effect of Elizabeth's expulsion of Catholics from Oxford, 1562-75, was that many took refuge abroad. Some scores of young men entered the Society, several of these volunteered for foreign missions, and thus it came about that the forerunner of those legions of Englishmen who go into India to carve out careers was the English Jesuit missionary, Thomas Stevens. John Yate (alias Vincent, b. 1550; died after 1603) and John Meade (see Almeida) were pioneers of the mission to Brazil. The most noteworthy of the first recruits were Thomas Darbishire and William Good, followed in time by Blessed Edmund Campion and Robert Persons. The latter was the first to conceive and elaborate the idea of the English mission, which, at Dr. Allen's request, was undertaken in December, 1578.
Before this the
Society had undertaken care of the English College, Rome (see English College), by the pope's command, 19 March, 1578. But difficulties ensued owing to the miseries inherent in the estate of the religious refugees. Many came all the way to Rome expecting pensions, or scholarships from the rector, who at first became, in spite of himself, the dispenser of Pope Gregory's alms. But the alms soon failed, and several scholars had to be dismissed as unworthy. Hence disappointments and storms of grumbling, the records of which read sadly by the side of the consoling accounts of the martyrdoms of men like Campion, Cottam, Southwell, Walpole, Page, and others, and the labours of a Hetward, Weston, or Gerard. Persons and Crichton too, falling in with the idea, so common abroad, that a counter-revolution in favor of Mary Stuart would not be difficult, made two or three political missions to Rome and Madrid (1582-84) before realizing that their schemes were not feasible (see PERSONS). After the Armada, Persons induced Philip to establish more seminaries, and hence the foundations at Valladolid, St-Omer, and Seville (1589, 1592, 1593), all put in charge of the English Jesuits. On the other hand they suffered a setback in the so-called Appellant Controversy (1598-1602) which French diplomacy in Rome eventually made into an opportunity for operating against Spain. (See Blackwell; Garnet.) The assistance of France, and the influence of the French Counter-Reformation were now on the whole highly beneficial. But many who took refuge at Paris became accustomed to a Gallican atmosphere, and hence perhaps some of the regalist views about the Oath of Allegiance, and some of the excitement in the debate over the jurisdiction of the Bishops of Chalcedon, of which more below. The feelings of tension continued until the missions of Pizzani, Conn, and Rosetti, 1635-41. Though the first of these was somewhat hostile, he was recalled in 1637, and his successors brought about a peace, too soon to be interrupted by the Civil War, 1641-60.
Before 1606, the
English Jesuits had founded houses for others, but neither they nor any other English order had erected houses for themselves. But during the so-called "Foundation Movement", due to many causes but especially perhaps to the stimulation of the Counter-Reformation in France, a full equipment of institutions was established in Flanders. The novitiate began at Louvain in 1606, was moved to Liège in 1614, and in 1622 to Watten. The house at Liège was continued as the scholasticate, and the house of third probation was at Ghent 1620. The "mission" was made in 1619 a vice-province, and on 21 January, 1623, a province, with Fr. Richard Blout as first provincial; and in 1634 it was able to undertake the foreign mission of Maryland (see below) in the old Society. The English Jesuits at this period also reached their greatest numbers. In 1621, they were 211, in 1636, 374. In the latter year, their total revenue amount to 45,086 scudi (about 5760 English pounds in 1913). After the civil War both members and revenue fell off very considerably. In 1649 there were only 264 members, and 23,055 scudi revenue (about 5760 pounds); in 1645, the revenue was only 17,405 scudi (about 4350 pounds).
Since Elizabeth's time the
martyrs had been few--one only, the Ven. Edmund Arrowsmith in the reign of Charles I. On 26 October, 1623, had occurred "The Doleful Even-song". A congregation had gathered for vespers in the garret of the French embassy in Blackfriars, when the floor gave way. Fathers Drury and Rediate with 61 (perhaps 100) of the congregation were killed. On 14 March, 1628, seven Jesuits were seized at St. John's Clerkenwell, with a large number of papers. These troubles, however, were light, compared with the sufferings during the Commonwealth, when the list of martyrs and confessors went up to ten. As the Jesuits depended so much on the country families, they were sure to suffer severely by the war, and the college at St-Omar was nearly beggared. The old trouble about the Oath of Allegiance was revived by the Oath of Abjuration, and the "three questions" proposed by Fairfax, 1 August 1647 (see THOMAS WHITE). The representatives of the secular and regular clergy, amongst them Father Henry More, were called upon at short notice to subscribe to them. They did so, More thinking he might, "considering the reasons of the preamble", which qualified the words of the oath considerably. But the provincial, Fr. Silesdon, recall him from England, and he was kept out of office for a year; a punishment which, even if drastic for his offence, cannot be regretted, as it providentially led to his writing the history of the English Jesuits down to the year 1635 ("Hist, missionis anglicanae Soc. Jesu, ab anno salutis MDLXXX", St-Omer, 1660).
With the Restoration, 1660, came a period of greater calm, followed by the worst tempest of all,
Oates's plot, when the Jesuits lost eight on the scaffold and thirteen in prison in five years, 1678-83. Then the period of greatest prosperity under King James II (1685-8). He gave then a college, and a public chapel in Somerset House, made Father Petri his almoner, and on 11 November, 1687, a member of his Privy Council. He also chose Father Warner as his confessor, and encouraged the preaching and controversies which were carried on with no little fruit. But this spell of prosperity lasted only a few months; with the Revolution of 1688, the Fathers regained their patrimony of persecution. The last Jesuits to die in prison were Fathers Poulton and Aylworth (1690-1692). William III's repressive legislation did not have the intended effect of exterminating the Catholics, but it did reduce them to a proscribed and ostracized body. Thenceforward the annals of the English Jesuits show little that is new or striking, though their number and works of charity were well-maintained. Most of the Fathers in England were chaplains to gentlemen's families, of which posts they held nearly a hundred during the eighteenth century.
The church law under which the
English Jesuits worked was to some extent special. At first indeed all was undefined, seculars and regulars living in true happy-family style. As, however, organization developed, friction between parts could not always be avoided, and legislation became necessary. By the institution of the archpriest (7 March, 1598), and by the subsequent modifications of the institution (6 April, 1599; 17 August, 16701; and 5 October, 1602), various occasions for friction were removed, and principles for stable government were introduced. As soon as Queen Henrietta Maria seemed able to protect a bishop in England, bishops of Chalcedon in partibus infidelium were sent, in 1623 and 1625. The second of these, Dr. Richard Smith, endeavored, without having the necessary faculty from Rome, to introduce the episcopal approbation of confessors. This lead to the brief "Britannica", 9 May, 1631 which left the faculties of regular missionaries in their previous immediate dependence on the Holy See. But after the institution of vicars Apostolic in 1685, by a decree of 9 October, 1695, regulars were obliged to obtain approbation from the bishop. There were of course many other matters that needed settlement, but the difficulties of the position in England and the distance from Rome made legislation slow and difficult. In 1745 and 1748 decrees were obtained, against which appeals were lodged; and it was not till 31 May, 1753, that the "Regulae missionis" were laid down by Benedict XIV in the Constitution "Apostolicum ministerium", which regulated ecclesiastical administration until the issuance of the Constitution "Romanos Pontifices" in 1881. In the year of the suppression, 1773, the English Jesuits numbered 274. (See EDWARD COFFIN; CRESWELL; ENGLISH CONFESSORS AND MARTYRS; HENRY MORE; PENAL LAWS; ROBERT PERSONS; SIR EDWARD PETRE; PLOWDEN; LOUIS DE SABRAN; SOUTHWELL; JOHN SPENCER; THOMAS STEPHENS; REDFORD.)

Ireland

One of the first commissions which the popes entrusted to the Society was that of acting as envoys to Ireland. Father Salmeron and Brouet managed to reach Ulster during the Lent of 1542; but the immense difficulties of the situation after Henry VIII's successes of 1541 made it impossible for them to live there in safety, much less to discharge the functions or to commence the reforms which the pope had entrusted to them. Under Queen Mary, the Jesuits would have returned, had there been men ready. There were indeed already a few Irish novices, and of these David Woulfe returned to Ireland on 20 January, 1561, with ample Apostolic faculties. He procured candidates for the sees emptied by Elizabeth, kept open a grammar school for some years, and sent several novices to the order; but he was finally imprisoned and had to withdraw to the continent. A little later the "Irish mission" was regularly organized under Irish superiors, beginning with Fr. Richard Fleming (d. 1590), professor at Clermont College, and then Chancellor of the University of Pont-à-Mousson.In 1609, the mission numbered seventy-two, forty of whom were priests, and eighteen were at work in Ireland. By 1617 this latter number had increased to thirty eight; the rest were for the most part in training among their French and Spanish confreres. The foundation of the colleges abroad, at Salamanca, Santiago, Seville, and Lisbon, for the education of the clergy was chiefly due to Father Thomas White (d. 1622). They were consolidated and long managed by Fr. James Archer of Kilkenny, afterwards missionary in Ulster and chaplain to Hugh O'Neill. The Irish College at Poitiers was also under Irish Jesuit direction, as was that of Rome for some time (see Irish College, in Rome).
The greatest extension in
Ireland was naturally during the dominance of the Confederation (1542-54) with which Father Matthew O'Hartigan was in great favour. Jesuit colleges, schools, and residences then amounted to thirteen, with a novitiate at Kilkenny. During the Protestant domination, the number of Jesuits fell again to eighteen, but in 1685, under James II there were twenty-eight with seven residences. After the Revolution, their number fell again to six, and then rose to seventeen in 1717, and to twenty-eight in 1755. The Fathers sprang mostly from the old Anglo-Norman families, but almost all the missionaries spoke Irish, and missionary labour was the chief occupation of the Irish Jesuits. Fr. Robert Rochford set up a school at Youdal as early as 1575; university education was given in Dublin in the reign of Charles I, until the buildings were seized and handed over to Trinity College; and Father John Austin kept a flourishing school in Dublin for twenty-two years before the Suppression.
Some account of the work of the
Jesuits in Ireland will be found in the articles on Father Christopher Holywood and Henry Fitzsimon; but it was abroad, from the nature of the case, that Irish genius of that day found it widest recognition. Stephen White, Luke Wadding, cousin of his famous Franciscan namesake, at Madrid; Andrew and Peter Wadding at Dilligen and Gratz respectively; J, B, Duiggin and John Lombard at Ypres and Antwerp; Thomas Comerford at Compostella; Paul Sherlock at Salamanca; Richard Lynch (1611-76) at Valladolid and Salamanca; James Kelly at Poitiers and Paris; Peter Plunket at Leghorn. Among the distinguished writers were William Bathe, whose "Janua linguarum" (Salamanca, 1611) was the basis of the work of Commenius. Bertrand Routh (b. at Kilkenny, 1695) was a writer in the "Mémoires de Trévoux" (1734-43), and assisted Montesquieu on his death-bed. In the field of foreign mission, O'Fihily was one of the first apostles of Paraguay, and Thomas Lynch was provincial of Brazil at the time of the Suppression. At this time also, Roger Magloire was working in Martinique, and Philip O'Reilly in Guiana. But it was the mission-field in Ireland itself of which the Irish Jesuits thought most, to which all else, in one way or other lead up. Their labours were principally spent in the walled cities of the old English Pale. Here they kept the faith vigorous, in spite of persecutions, which, if sometimes intermitted, were nevertheless long and severe. The first Irish Jesuit martyr was Edmund O'Donnell who suffered at Cork in 1575. Others on that list of honour are: Dominic Collins, a lay brother, Youghal, 1602; William Boynton, Cahel, 1647; Fathers Netterville and Bathe, at the fall of Drogheda, 1649. Father David Gallway worked among the scattered and persecuted Gaels of the Scottish Isles and Highlands, until his death in 1643. (See also FITSIMON; MALONE; O'DONNELL; PETER TALBOT; IRISH CONFESSORS AND MARTYRS.)

Scotland

Father Nicholas de Gouda was sent to visit Mary Queen of Scots in 1562 to invite her to send bishops to the Council of Trent. The power of the Protestants made it impossible to achieve this object, but de Gouda conferred with the Queen and brought back with him six young Scots, who were to prove the founders of the mission. Of these Edmund Hay soon rose to prominence and was rector of Clermont College, Paris. In 1584, Crichton returned with Father James Gordon, uncle of the Earl of Huntly, to Scotland; the former was captured, but the latter was extraordinarily successful, and the Scottish mission proper may be said to have begun with him, and Father Edmund Hay and John Drury, who came in 1585. The Earl of Huntly became the Catholic leader, and the fortunes of his party passed through many a strange turn. But the Catholic victory of Glenlivet, in 1594, aroused the temper of the Kirk to such a pitch that James, though averse to severity, was forced to advance against the Catholic lords and eventually Huntly was constrained to leave the country, and then, returning he submitted to the Kirk in 1597. This put a term to the spread of Catholicism; Father James Gordon had to leave in 1595, but Father Abercrombie succeeded in reconciling Anne of Denmark, who, however, did not prove a very courageous convert. Meantime the Jesuits had been given the management of the Scots College founded by Mary Stuart in Paris, which was successively removed to Pont-a-Mousson and to Douai. In 1600 another college was founded at Rome and put under them, and there was also a small one at Madrid.
After reaching the English throne, James was bent on introducing
episcopacy into Scotland, and to reconcile the Presbyterians to this he allowed them to persecute the Catholics to their hearts' content. By their barbarous "excommunication", the suffering they inflicted was incredible. The soul of the resistance to this cruelty was Father James Anderson, who, however, becoming the object of special searches, had to be withdrawn in 1611. In 1614, Fathers John Ogilvie and James Moffat were sent in, the former suffering martyrdom at Glasgow, 10 March 1615. In 1620, Father Patrick Anderson was tried, but eventually banished. After this, a short period of peace, 1625-27, ensued, followed by another persecution, 1629-30, and another period of peace before the rising of the Covenanters, and the Civil Wars, 1638-45. There were about six Fathers in the mission at the time, some chaplains with the Catholic gentry, some living the then wild life of the Highlanders, especially during Montrose's campaigns. But after Philiphaugh (1645), the fortunes of the royalists and the Catholics underwent a sad change. Among those who fell into the hands of the enemy was Father Andrew Leslie, who has left a lively account of his prolonged sufferings in various prisons. After the Restoration (1660) there was a new period of peace in which the Jesuit missionaries reaped a considerable harvest, but during the disturbances caused by the Covenanters the persecution of Catholics was renewed. James II favored them as far as he could, appointing Fathers James Forbes and Thomas Patterson chaplains at Holyrood, where a school was also opened. After the Revolution, the Fathers were scattered, but returned, though with diminishing numbers.

Missions

No sphere of religious activity is held in greater esteem among the Jesuits than that of the foreign missions; and from the beginning, men of the highest gifts, like St. Francis Xavier, have been devoted to this work. Hence perhaps it is that a better idea may be formed of the Jesuits missions by reading the lives of its great missionaries, which will be found under their respective names (see the Index), than from the following notice, in which attention has to be confined to general topics.

India

When the Society began, the great colonizing powers were Spain and Portugal. The career of St. Francis Xavier, so far as its geographical direction and limits were concerned, was largely determined by the Portuguese settlements in the East, and by the trade routes followed by the Portuguese merchants. Arriving at Goa in 1542, he evangelized first the western coast and Ceylon; in 1545 he was in Malacca; in 1549 in Japan. At the same time he pushed forward his few assistants and catechists into other centers, and in 1552 set out for China, but died at the year's end on an island off the coast. Xavier's work was carried on, with Gao as headquarters, and Father Barzaeus as successor. Father Antonio Criminali, the first martyr of the Society had suffered in 1549 and Father Mendez followed in 1552. In 1559, Blessed Rudolph Acquiviva visited the court of Akbar the Great, but without permanent effect. The great impulse of conversions came after Ven. Robert de Nobili declared himself a Brahmin Sannjasi and lived the life of the Brahmins (1606). At Tanjore and elsewhere he now made immense numbers of converts, who were allowed to keep the distinctions of their caste, with many religious customs; which, however, were eventually (after much controversy) condemned by Benedict XIV in 1744. This condemnation produced a depressing effect on the mission, though at the very time Fathers Lopez and Acosta with singular heroism devoted themselves for life to the service of the Pariahs. The Suppression of the Society, which followed soon after, completed the desolation of a once prolific missionary field. (See MALABAR RITES.) From Gao too were organized missions to the east coast of Africa. The Abyssinian mission, under Father Nunhes, Oviedo, and Paes lasted, with various fortunes, over a century 1555-1690 (See Abyssinia, I, 76). The mission on the Zambesi under Father Silviera, Acosta, and Fernandez was but short lived; so too was the work of Father Govea in Angola. In the seventeenth century, the missionaries penetrated into Tibet, Fathers Desideri and Freyre reaching Lhasa. Others pushed out in the Persian mission, from Ormus as far as Ispahan. About 1700 the Persian missions counted 400,000 Catholics. The southern and eastern coasts of India, with Ceylon, were comprised after 1610 in the separate province of Malabar, with an independent French mission at Pondicherry. Malabar numbered forty-seven missionaries (Portuguese) before the Suppression, while the French missions counted 22. (See HANXLEDEN).

Japan

The Japanese mission (see Japan, VIII, 306) gradually developed into a province, but the seminary and seat of government remained at Macao. By 1582, the number of Christians was estimated at 200,000, with 250 churches, and 59 missionaries, of whom 23 were priests, and 26 Japanese had been admitted to the Society. But 1587 saw the beginnings of persecution, and about the same period began the rivalries of nations and of competing orders. The Portuguese crown had been assumed by Spain, and Spanish merchants introduced Spanish Dominicans and Franciscans. Gregory XIII at first forbade this (28 January, 1585) but Clement VIII and Paul V (12 December, 1600; 11 June 1608) relaxed and repealed the prohibition, and the persecution of Taico-sama quenched in blood whatever discontent might have arisen in consequence. The first great slaughter of 26 missionaries at Nagasaki took place on 5 Feb., 1597. Then came fifteen years of comparative peace, and gradually the number of Christians rose to about 1,800,000 and the Jesuit missionaries to 140 (63 priests). In 1612, the persecution broke out again, increasing in severity until 1622, when over 120 martyrs suffered. The "great martyrdom" took place on 20 September, when Blessed Charles Spinola suffered with representatives of the Dominicans and the Franciscans. For the twenty ensuing years, the massacre continued without mercy, all Jesuits who landed being at once executed. In 1644 Father Gaspar de Amaral was drowned in attempting to land, and his death brought to a close the century of missionary effort which the Jesuits had made to bring the faith to Japan. The name of the Japanese province was retained, and it counted 57 subjects in 1660; but the mission was really confined to Tonkin and Cochin-China, whence stations were established in Annam, Siam, etc. (see Indo-China, VII, 774-5; Martyrs, Japanese).

China

A detailed account of this mission from 1552-1773 will be found under CHINA (III, 672-4) and Martyrs in MARTYRS IN CHINA, and in lives of the missionaries Bouvet, Brancati, Carneiro, Cibot, Fridelli, Gaubil, Gerbillon, Herdtrich, Hinderer, Mailla, Martini, Matteo Ricci, Schall von Bell, and Verbiest (qq.v.). From 1581, when the mission was organized, it consisted of Portuguese Fathers. They established four colleges, one seminary and some forty stations under a vice-provincial who resided frequently at Pekin; at the Suppression there were 54 Fathers. From 1687 there was a special mission of the French Jesuits to Pekin, under their own superior; at the Suppression they numbered 23.

Central and South America

The missions of Central and South America were divided between Portugal and Spain (see America, I, 414). In 1549, Father Numbrega and five companions, Portuguese, went to Brazil. Progress was slow at first, but when the languages had been learnt, and the confidence of the natives acquired, progress became rapid. Blessed Ignacio de Azevedo and his thirty-one companions were martyred on their way thither in 1570. The missions, however, prospered steadily under such leaders as José Anchieta and John Almeida (qq.v.) (Meade). In 1630, there were 70,000 converts. Before the Suppression, the whole country had been divided into missions, served by 445 Jesuits in Brazil, and 146 in the vice-province of Maranhão.

Paraguay

Of the Spanish missions, the most noteworthy is Paraguay (see Guarani Indians; Abipones; Argentine Republic; Reductions of Paraguay). The province contained 584 members (of whom 385 were priests) before the Suppression, with 113,716 Indians under their charge.

Mexico

Even larger than Paraguay was the missionary province of Mexico, which included California, with 572 Jesuits and 122,000 Indians. (See also CALIFORNIA MISSIONS; MEXICO; AÑAZCO; CLAVIGERO; DÍAZ; DUCRUE; etc.) The conflict as to jurisdiction (1647) with Juan de la Palafox y Mendoza, Bishop of La Puebla, led to an appeal to Rome which was decided by Innocent X in 1648, but afterward became a cause célèbre. The other Spanish missions, New Granada (Colombia), Chile, Peru, Quito (Ecuador), were administered by 193, 242, 526, and 209 Jesuits respectively (see ALEGRE; ARAUCANIANS; ARAWAKS; BARRASA; MOXOS INDIANS).

United States

Father Andrew White and four other Jesuits from the English missions arrived in territory now comprised in the state of Maryland, 25 March, 1634, with the expedition of Cecil Calvert. For ten years they ministered to the Catholics, of the colony, converted many of its Protestant pioneers, and conducted missions with the Indians along Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac River, the Patuxents, Anacostans, and Piscaways, which last were especially friendly. In 1644 the colony was invaded by the Puritans from the neighboring settlement of Virginia, and Father White was sent in chains to England, tried for being a Catholic, and on his release took refuge in Belgium. Although the Catholic colonists soon regained control, they were constantly menaced by their Protestant neighbours and by malcontents in the colony itself, who finally in 1692 succeeded in seizing the government, and in enacting a penal law against the Catholics, particularly against their Jesuit priests, which became more and more intolerable until the colony became the state of Maryland in 1776. During the 140 years between their arrival in Maryland and the Suppression of the Society, the missionaries, averaging four in number the first forty years, and then gradually increasing to twelve and then about twenty, continued their work among the Indians and the Settlers despite every vexation and disability, though prevented from increasing in number and extending their labours during the dispute with Cecil Calvert over retaining the tract of land, Mattapany, given then by the Indians, relief from taxation on lands devoted to religious or charitable purposes, and the usual ecclesiastical immunity for themselves and their households. The controversy ended in the cession of the Mattapany tract, the missionaries retaining the land they had acquired by the condition of plantation. Prior to the Suppression, they had established missions in Maryland, at St. Thomas, White Marsh, St. Inigoes, Leonardtown still (1912) under the care of the Jesuits, and also at Deer Creek, Frederick, and St. Joseph's Bohemia Manor besides the many less permanent stations among the Indians in Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Conewego, Lancaster, Gosenhoppen, and the excursion stations as far as New York, where two of their number, Fathers Harvey and Harrison assisted for a time by Father Gage had, under Governor Dongan ministered as chaplains in the forts and among the white settlers, and attempted unsuccessfully to establish a school between 1683-89, when they were forced to retire by an anti-Catholic administration.
The
Suppression of the Society altered but little the status of the Jesuits in Maryland. As they were the only priests in the mission, they still remained at their posts, the nine English members, until death, all continuing to labor under Father John Lewis who after the Suppression had received the powers of vicar-general from Bishop Calloner of the London District. Only two of them survived until the restoration of the Society--Robert Molyneux and John Bolton. Many of those who were abroad, labouring in England or studying in Belgium, returned to work in the mission. As a corporate body, they still retained the properties from which they derived support for their religious ministrations. As their numbers decreased, some of the missions were abandoned, or served for a time by other priests, but maintained by the revenues of the Jesuits properties even after the Restoration of the Society. Though these properties were regarded as reverting to it through its former members organized as the Corporation of Roman Catholic clergymen, a yearly allowance from the revenues made over to Archbishop Carroll became during Bishop Ambrose Maréchal's administration (1817-34) the basis of a claim for such a payment in perpetuity and the dispute thus occasioned was not settled until 1838 under Archbishop Eccleston.

French missions

The French missions had as bases the French colonies in Canada, the Antilles, Guiana, and India; while the French influence in the Mediterranean led to missions of the Levant, in Syria among the Maronites, etc. (See also Guiana; Haiti; Martinique; China, III, 673.) The Canadian mission is described under Canada, and Missions, Catholic Indian, of Canada. (See also the accounts of the missions given in articles on Indian tribes like the Abenakis, Cree, Huron, Iroquois, Ottawas; and the biographies of the missionaries Bailloquet, Brébeuf, Casot, Chabanel, Chastellain, Chaumonot, Cholonec, Crépieul, Dablon, Cruillettes, Garnier, Goupil, Jogues, Lafitau, Lagrené, Jacques-P. Lallemant, Lamberville, Lauzon, Le Moyne, Râle, etc.) In 1611, Fathers Biard and Massé arrived as missionaries at Port Royal, Acadia. Taken prisoners by the English from Virginia, they were sent back to France in 1614. In 1625, Fathers Massé, Brébeuf, and Charles Lalemant came to work in and about Quebec, until 1629, when they were forced to return to France after the English captured Quebec. Back again in 1632, they began the most heroic missionary period in the annals of America. They opened a college in Quebec in 1635 with a staff of most accomplished professors from France. For forty years, men quite as accomplished, labouring under incredible hardships, opened missions among the Indians on the coast, along the St. Lawrence and the Saguenay, and Hudson Bay; among the Iroquois, Neutral Nation, Petuns, Hurons, Ottawas, and later among the Miamis, Illinois, and the tribes east of the Mississippi as far south as the Gulf of Mexico. When Canada became a British possession in 1763, these missions could no longer be sustained, though many of them, especially those that formed part of parochial settlements had gradually been taken over by secular priests. The college at Quebec was closed in 1768. At the time of the Suppression. there were but twenty-one Jesuits in Canada, the last of whom, Father John J. Casot, died in 1800. The mission has become famous for its martyrs, eight of whom, Brebeuf, Gabriel Lalemant, Daniel, Garnier, Chabanel, Jogues and his lay companions Goupil and Lalande were declared venerable on 27 February, 1912. It has also become noted for its literary remains, especially for the works of the missionaries in the Indian tongues, for their explorations, especially that of Marquette, and for its "Relations."

Jesuit Relations

The collections known as "Jesuit Relations" consist of letters written from members of the Society in the mission field to their superiors and brethren in Europe, and contain accounts of the development of the missions, and the obstacles which they encountered in their work. In March, 1549, when St. Francis Xavier confided the mission of Ormus to Father Gaspar Barzaeus, he included among his instructions the commission to write from time to time to the college at Goa, giving an account of what was being done in Ormus. His letter to Joam Beira (Malacca, 20 June, 1540), recommends similar accounts being sent to St. Ignatius at Rome and the Father Simon Rodriguez at Lisbon, and is very explicit concerning both the content and the tone of these accounts. The instructions were the guide for the future "Relations sent from all the foreign missions of the order. The "Relations" were of three kinds: Intimate and personal accounts sent to the father-general, to a relative, to a friend, or a superior, which were not meant for publication at the time, if ever. There were also annual letters intended only for members of the order, manuscript copies of which were sent from house to house. Extracts and analyses of these letters were compiled in a volume entitled: "Litterae annuae Societatis Jesu ad patres et fratres Ejusdem Societatis". The rule forbade the communication of these letters to persons not members of the order, as is indicated by the title. The publication of the annual letters began in 1581, was interrupted from 1614 to 1649, and came to an end in 1654, though the provinces and missions continued to send such letters to the father-general. The third class of letters, or "Relations" properly so-called, were written for the public and intended for printing. Of this class were the famous "Relations de la Novelle-France" begun in 1616 by Father Biard. The series for 1626 was written by Father Charles Lalement. Forty-one volumes constitute the series of 1632-72, thirty-nine of which bear the title "Relations" and two (1645-55 and 1658-59) "Letteres de la Novelle-France". The cessation of these publications was the indirect outcome of the controversies concerning the Chinese Rites, as Clement X forbade (16 April, 1673) missionaries to publish books or writings concerning the missioSources
History: A. General.--Mon. historica Soc. Jesu, ed. Rodeles (Madrid, 1894, in progress); Orlandini (continued in turn by Sacchini, Jouvancy, and Cordara), Hist. Soc. Jesu, 1540-1632 (8 vols. fol., Rome and Antwerp, 1615-1750), and Supplement (Rome, 1859); Bartoli, Dell' istoria della comp. de Gesu (6 vols. fol., Rome, 1663-73); Cretineau-Holy, Hist.de la comp. de Jesus (3rd ed., 3 vols., Paris 1859); B. N. The Jesuits: their Foundation and History (London, 1879); [Wernz], Abriss der Gesch. der Gesellschaft Jesu (Munster, 1876); Carrez Atlas geographicus Soc. Jesu (Paris, 1900); Heimbucher, Die Orden und Kongregationen der katholkischen Kirche, III (Paderborn, 1908), 2-258, contains an excellent bibliography; [Quesnel] Hist. des religieux de la comp. de Jesus (Utrecht, 174). Non-Catholic:--Steitz-Zockler in Realencycl. fur prot. Theol., s.v. Jesuitenorden; Hassenmuller, Hist.jesuitici ordinis (Frankfurt, 1593); Hospinianus, Hist. jesuitica (Zurich, 1619).
B. Particular Countries.--Italy--Tacchi-Venturi Storia della comp di G. in Italia (Rome, 1910 in progress); Schinosi and Santagata Istoria della comp. di G. appartenente al Regno di Napoli (Naples, 1706-57); Alberti, La Sicilia (Palermo, 1702); Aquilera Provinciae Siculae Soc Jesu res gestae (Palermo, 1737-40); Cappelletti, I gesuiti e la republica di Venizia (Venice. 1873); Favaro, Lo studio di Padora e la comp de G. (Venice, 1877). Spain.--Astrain, Hist. de la comp. de J. in asistencia di Espana (Madrid, 1902, 3 vols., in progress); Alcazar, Chronohistoria de la comp de J. en la provincia de la Toledo (Madrid 1710); Prat, Hist du P. Ribedeneyra (Paris 1862). Portugal--Tellez, Chronica de la comp. de J. na provincia de Portugal (Coimbra, 1645-7); Franco, Synop. annal. Soc. Jesu in Lusitania ab anno 1 40 ad 172 (Augsburg, 1726); Teixeira, Docum. para a hist. dos Jesuitas em Portugal (Coimbra, 1899). France.--Fouqueray, Hist de la comp de J. en France (Paris. 1910); Carayon, Docum. ined. concernant la comp. de J. (23 vols., Paris, 1863-86); Idem, Les parlements et les jesuites (Paris, 1867); Prat, mem pour servir a l'hist. du P. Brouet (Puy 1885); Idem, Recherches hist sur la comp. de J. en France du temps du P. Coton, 1564-1627 (Lyons, 1876); Idem, Maldonat et l'universite de Paris (Paris, 1856); Donarche, L'univ de Paris et les jesuites (Paris, 1888); Piaget, L'etablissement des jesuites en France 1540-1660 (Leyden, 1893); Chossat, les jesuites et leurs oeuvres a Avignon (Avignon, 1896). Germany, etc,--Agricola (continued by Flotto, Kropf), Hist. prov. Soc. Jesu Germaniae superioris (1540-1641) (5 vols, Augsburg and Munich, 1727-54); Hansen, Rhein. Akten zur Gesch. des Jesuitenordens 1542-82 (1896); Jansen, History of the German People, tr. Christie (London 1905-10); Duhr, Gesch. der Jesuiten in den Landern deutscher Zunge (Freiburg, 1907); Kroess, Gesch der bohmischen Prov. der G. J. (Vienna, 1910); Menderer, Annal. Ingolstadiensis academ. (Ingolstadt, 1782); Reiffenberg, Hist. Soc. Jesu ad Rhenum inferiorum (Cologne, 1764); Argento, De rebus Soc.jesu in regba Poloniae (Cracow, 1620); Pollard, The Jesuits in Poland, (Oxford, 1882); Zalenski, Hist. of the Soc. of Jesus in Poland (in Polish, 1896-1906); Idem, The Jesuits in White Russia (in Polish, 1874; Fr. tr., Paris, 1886); Pierling, Antonii Possevini moscovitica (1883); Rostwoski, Hist. Soc. Jesu prov. Lithuanicarum provincialum (Wilna, 1765); Scmidl, Hist. Soc. Jesu prov. Bohemiae, 1555-1653 (Prague, 1747-59); Socher, Hist. prov. Austriae Soc. Jesu, 1540-1590 (Vienna, 1740); Steinhuber, Gesch. des Coll. Germanicum-Hungaricum (Freiburg, 1895). Belgium.--Manare, De rebus Soc. Jesu commentarius, ed. Delplace (Florence, 1886); Waldack, Hist. prov. Flandro-beligicae Soc. Jesu anni 1638 (Ghent, 1837). England, Ireland, Scotland. Foley, Records of the English Prov. of the Soc. of Jesus--includes Irish and Scottish Jesuits (London, 1877); Spillmann, Die englischen Martyrer unter Elizabeth bis 1583 (Freiburg, 1888), Forbes-Leith, Narr. of Scottish Catholics (Edinburgh, 1885). Idem, Mem. of Soc. Cath. (London, 1909); Hogan, Ibernia Ignatiana (Dublin, 1880); Idem, Distinguished Irishmen of the XVI century (London, 1894) Meyer, England und die kath. Kirke unter Elizabeth (Rome, 1910); More, Hist. prov. Anglicanae (St-Omer, 1660); Persons, Memoirs, ed. Pollen in Cath. Record Society, II (London, 1896, 1897), iii; Pollen, Politics of the Eng. Cath. under Elisabeth in The Month (London, 1902-3; Taunton, The Jesuits in England (London, 1901).
Missions: Letters from the missions were instituted by St. Ignatius. At first they were circulated in MS. and contained home as well as foreign news; e.g. Litterae quadrimestres (5 vols.) lately printed in the Monumenta series, mentioned above. Later on, Litteræ annuae, in yearly or triennial volumes (1581 to 1614) at Rome, Florence, etc., index with last vol. Second series (1650-54) at Dilligen and Prague. The annual letters continued, and still continue in MS., but very irregularly. The tendency was to leave home letters in MS. for the future historian, and to publish the more interesting reports from abroad. Hence many early issues of Avvisi and Litteræ, etc., from India, China, Japan, and later on the celebrated Relations of the French Canadian missions (Paris, 1634-). From these ever-growing printed and manuscript sources were drawn up the collections--Lettres edifiantes et curieuses écrites par quelques missionaries del la comp. de Jesu (Paris, 1702; frequently reprinted with different matter in 4 to 34 volumes. The original title was Lettres de quelques missionaries); Der Neue-Weltbott mit allerhand Nachtrichten deren Missionar. Soc. Jesu, ed. Stocklein and others (36 vols. Augsburg, Gratz, 1738-); Hounder, Deutcher jesuiten Missionäre (Freiburg, 1899). For literature of particular missions see those titles. Leclercq, Premier établissment de la foy dans la Nouvelle-France (Paris, 1619), tr. Shea (New York 1881); Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North America, (New York, 1908-11); Bourne, Spain in America (New York, 1904); Parkman, The Jesuits in North America (New York, Boston, 1868); Rochemonteix, Les jesuites et la Nouvelle-France au xviii(e) siècle (Paris, 1896); Charlevoux, Hist de la Nouvelle-France (Paris, 1744). Campbell (B.U.), Biog. Sketch of Fr. Andrew White and his Companions, the first Missionaries of Maryland (in the Metropolitan Catholic Almanac, Baltimore, 1841); Idem. Hist. Sketch of the Early Christian Missions among the Indians of Maryland (Maryland Hist. Soc., 8 Jan 1846); Johnson, The Foundation of Maryland in Maryland Hist. Soc. Fund Publications no. 18; Kip. Early Jesuit Missionaries in North America (New York, 1882); Idem, Hist Scenes from Old Jesuit Missions (New York, 1875); The Jesuit Relations. ed. Thwaites (73 vols., Cleveland, 1896-1901); Shea, Jesuits, Recollects, and Indians, in Winsor, Narrative and Critical Hist. of America (Boston, 1889); Hughes, Hist. of the Soc. of Jesus in North America, Colonial and Federal (Cleveland, 1908-); Shea, Hist. of the Catholic Church within the limits of the United States (New York, 1886-92); Schall, Hist. relatio de ortu et progressu fidei orthod. in regno Chinesi 1581-1669 (Ratisbon, 1872); Ricci, Opere storiche, ed. Venturi (Macerata, 1911).

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