holy Roman Papal Bloodlines. Above the Breakspear, Aldobrandini, and other Papal Bloodlines...govern world politics
through the knights of Malta, wich govern world leaders who are tied to the Papal bloodlines like the Orsini family a most powerful family in complete control of the conspiracy. these roman bloodlines are all governed by the hierachy of the Jesuit Order.and the black pope the superior jesuit general
The masonic "Illuminati" is not ruling the new world order but is a trojan horse organisation to overthrow world politics
the Papal bloodlines:
All controlled through the Jesuit Order and their Knights of Malta & Teutonic Knights all based in Rome.
Pepe Orsini - Italy
Henry Breakspear - Macau, China
This is the true power finally.
This is the Guelph and the Ghibelline power over mankind.
The Cecil family were controlled by the powerful Jesuit family known as the Pallavicini.
Maria Camilla Pallavicini is far more powerful than Queen Elizabeth II.
The Queen and Prince Philip are totally subordinate to the Papal Bloodline the Breakspear Family and their Jesuit UKHQ at 114 Mount Street.
the Orsini also known as Orso and the ancient Maximus family.
There is no one more powerful than this figure who is really the Grey Pope.
The Papal Bloodlines are the secret shadow hieracy of the Jesuit Order even behind the Black Pope touted at the #1.
These powerful bloodlines are the Breakspear, Somaglia, Orsini, Farnese & Aldobrandini.
You'll notice David Rothschild marrying into the Aldobrandini with the pretty, Princess Olimpia Aldobrandini.
Another real head of this is Henry Breakspear who resides now in Macau in China.
Many of the Papal Bloodline heads now live in Asia and India. What does that tell you?
The current Black Pope, Adolfo Nicholas was bought forward for the position due to the Jesuits bringing about of Asia as the next power player of the agenda.
Both this Black Pope and the white Pope aren't of Papal Bloodline, they are both commoners.
Saturnalian Brotherhood - The Real 13 Zoroastrian Bloodlines of the Illuminati
House of Borja
House of Breakspeare
House of Somaglia
House of Orsini
House of Conti
House of Chigi
House of Colonna
House of Farnese
House of Medici
House of Gaetani
House of Pamphili
House of Este
House of Aldobrandini
These Egyptian Ptolemaic Dynasty Rulers are in Full Control of the Company of Jesus, High Grey Council of Ten, and the Black Pope
This is some good info on the Black Pope:
The 'Black Pope', Superior Jesuit General (The President of the World), speaks at Loyola 'Military Fortress' University in his un-ratified 14th Amendment 'Little Rome' D.C United States Corporation.
A corporation under International Maritime Admiralty Law (Uniform Commerical Code) based upon Vatican Canon Law and perfected by the Roman Empire.
He lies about his power, he's over the Pope as of 1814.
He only serves and works with the shadow Jesuits being the Papal Bloodline Orsini's, Breakspear's, Aldobrandini's, Farnese's, Somalgia's.
Adolfo is not of Papal Bloodline, some Black Pope's have been.
The next in power beneath the Jesuits is the Bourbon, King Juan Carlos of Spain. The Roman Monarch of the World, The King of Jerusalem and SMOM Military Navigator.
This is the true World's power system right now.
Adolfo serves as a military General protecting the Zoroathrianism and Mithraism mystery schools.
The Jesuits were created by the Papal Bloodline Farnese during the reign of Farnese Pope Paul III.
Loyola was commissioned by Alessandro Cardinal Farnese.
Last Edited by Open Your Eyes on 6/15/2010 at 12:37 AM
The Borgia crime family created the Jesuits!!
After the terrible reign of Pope Alexander VI, the Romans were disgusted with the Spanish and vowed that there would never be another Spanish Pope. This animosity toward the Spanish was further aggravated by the Sack of Rome in 1527 in order to prevent the divorce of Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon.
The Borgia answer to this Spanish animosity was the creation of the order of Jesuits—a quasi religious/military strike force whose members were totally dedicated to their Spanish leader who bore the military title of general.
Like the White Pope, the general is elected for life and the Jesuit dynasty is a parallel or pseudo Papacy....Of course, the general is content to run the show from behind the scenes so as not to arouse the age-old Italian hatred for the Spanish.
The Jesuit general is referred to as the '"Black" Pope at the Vatican because he always dresses in black.
The Jesuits were officially founding in 1540 by Pope Paul III. Ignatius LIEola became their first general.
Don Francis Borgia was the great-grandson of Pope Alexander VI, and co-founder of the Jesuits. On his mother's side he was descended from King Ferdinand of Aragon.
The Spanish control the Vatican through the Jesuits.
For the past 500 years, the Spanish Inquisition has controlled the Vatican by means of the Jesuits. All the Jesuits answer to their general in Rome, and he in turn is content to run the show from behind the scenes, without any publicity or public acclaim so as not to arouse the age-old Italian hostility to the Spanish...
Vaticanus then is a combination of Vatic + anus, just as Romanus is a combination of Rome + anus. Therefore, vaticanus collis or vaticanus mons mean "the prophetic hill or mountain", which can be rephrased as the hill or mountain of prophecy. The word Vatican is just a shortened form of the word Vaticanus, just like Claudian is a shortened form of Claudianus, as shown above. This association of the Vatican with prophecy is even confirmed by this recent Catholic book:
Where does the word "Vatican" come from and what does it mean?
The word derives from the Latin vates, which means "tellers of the future." This name was the name given to a hillside on the west bank of the Tiber River in Rome because daily lineups of fortunetellers used to hawk their "wares" there to passersby on the street. In the fourteenth century, when the papacy was returned to Rome from Avignon (France), the present-day Vatican became the residence of the popes, and the word came to refer to the enclave in the middle of Rome that had become the seat of the Roman Catholic Church.
Rev 17:18 And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.
So the pure teachings of Jesus are symbolized by new wine (non-alcoholic grape juice), but the golden cup of wine in the hand of the woman of Revelation 17 is full of abominations and the filthiness of her fornication, which represent apostate doctrine, stupefying corrupted dogma, the commandments (precepts) of men, by which she has made all the nations to become drunken.
Rev 17:2 With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication. ...
Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:
Papal Rome's symbolism of FIDES apparently originated with ancient Pagan Rome. On the left is a strikingly similar Roman Denarius, with FIDES holding military standards, a common theme on coins from ancient Rome, depicting a military faithful to the reigning emperor.
As above so below
Roma,Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano
The Orsini (MAXIMUS) family 1 jaar, 1 maand geleden #13188 BL@DE
Here is another sculpture of FIDES, titled The Triumph of Faith over Idolatry by Théodon Jean Baptiste, in Rome's Chiesa del Gesù, the Jesuit Church of Rome. This sculpture is on the left side of the tomb of Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits.
De heilige Iñigo Lopez de Loyola (kasteel Loyola bij Azpeitia, 24 december 1491 - Rome, 31 juli 1556), beter bekend onder zijn Latijnse naam Ignatius van Loyola, werd bekend door zijn aandeel in de oprichting van de Sociëteit van Jesus, als de eerste "generaal" daarvan en door zijn Geestelijke Oefeningen. Hij werd in 1622 heilig verklaard door paus Gregorius XV. Zijn feestdag valt op 31 juli.
Ignatius van Loyola
Hij was de zoon van een Spaanse edelman. In zijn jonge jaren schijnt hij een losbandig leven te hebben geleid, maar tijdens zijn diensttijd in het Spaanse leger kwam er in 1521 een ommekeer tijdens de Franse belegering van Pamplona, toen een kanonskogel tussen zijn benen schoot, die zijn beide benen verwondde. Na zijn herstel ondernam hij in 1534 met zes anderen vanuit Parijs een pelgrimsreis naar Palestina. Loyola werd in 1537 te Venetië tot priester gewijd. In 1539 kwam het te Rome tot de oprichting van de Jezuïeten. Hij ligt in Rome begraven in de Jezuïetenkerk Gesù.
Rev 12:3 And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads.
Rev 12:4 And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.
Rev 12:9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
The above verses make clear, in even superficial reading, that the Great Red Dragon is Satan. But there is another relationship that is not as readily apparent. Verse 4 is referring to the birth of Jesus, and Satan's attempt to kill the infant Jesus. Satan however, did not attempt this act of murder on his own. He made his attempt through the power of one man on earth. This man is identified:
Mat 2:13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.
Herod the Great, the King of Judea and Palestine was the agent Satan used in his attempt to kill the infant Jesus. It is significant to note that Herod received his office from the Roman Empire. In 37 B.C. Herod the Great conquered Jerusalem with the aid of Roman armies and made himself king.
Now notice again in Rev 12:3 that Satan is described as having seven heads, ten horns and seven crowns. This is important because it is a key to identify Satan and his agents elsewhere in Revelation:
Rev 13:1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
Rev 13:2 And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.
Here another agent of Satan can be found. Although nearly identical in description, it is not Satan, because verse 2 says this beast power gets his power from the dragon - a clear reference to Satan. As we observed in Matthew, Satan used the power of the ancient Roman Empire to attempt the murder of Jesus. The dragon and Rome worked with the same mind toward the same goal. So in Rev 13:2 we can possibly substitute Rome for the word Dragon.
the roman Orsini bloodline
One of the most ancient and distinguished families of the Roman nobility, whose members often played an important rôle in the history of Italy, particularly in that of Rome and of the Papal States.
The Roman or principal line of the family, from which branched off a series of collateral lines as time went on, may be traced back into the early middle Ages, and a legendary ancestry goes back even as far as early Roman times. The Roman line, as well as its branches, had large possessions in Italy and were the rulers of numerous and important dominions, fortified towns, and strongholds. In Rome, the Orsini were the hereditary enemies of the equally distinguished Colonna: in the great medieval conflict between papacy and empire, the latter were for the most part on the side of the emperor and the leaders of the Ghibelline party, while the Orsini were ordinarily champions of the papacy and leaders of the Guelph party. The Orsini gave three popes to theChurch — Celestine III, Nicholas III, and Benedict XIII — as well as many cardinals and numerous bishops and prelates. Other members of the family distinguished themselves in political history as warriors or statesmen, and others again won renown in the fields of art and science. The wars between the Orsini and Colonna form an important part of the medieval history of Rome and of Central Italy. Forming as they did a part of the conflicts waged by the emperors in Italy, they influenced in a very prominent manner the general historical development of that time.
Cardinals of the Orsini family
Among the cardinals of the Orsini family who were distinguished in the history of the Church, as well as in ecclesiastico-political history, the following are especially worthy of mention:--
(1) MATTEO ROSSO ORSINI, nephew of Cardinal Gaetano Orsini (later Pope Nicholas III), created a cardinal by Urban IV in December, 1262; d. 4 Sept., 1305 (according to some authorities, 1306). As legate for the provinces of the Patrimony of Peterand of the Marches, he fought against Peter de Vico, who, in the name of Manfred, invaded the papal territory with Germanmercenaries. Soon after the elevation of his uncle, Nicholas III, to the papal throne (1277), he was named by this popearchpriest of the Vatican Basilica, rector of the great Hospital of the Holy Ghost in Vatican territory, and cardinal protector of the Franciscan Order. After the death of Nicholas III (1280), the cardinals assembled in Viterbo for the election of his successor, but, owing to party dissensions, many months passed before a decision was reached. The party which inclined towards theFrench, and which had the support of Charles of Anjou, King of Naples, himself present in Viterbo, wished to elect an exponent of the policy of France, and chose as their candidate the French Cardinal Simon. However, the two cardinals Orsini, Matteo Rosso and Giordano, the latter a brother of the deceased pope, Nicholas III, energetically opposed this choice. As neither party could command the necessary majority, no election resulted. In February, 1281, the French party resolved to have recourse to a bold stroke. At the instigation of the marshal of the conclave, Annibaldi, who was at variance with the Orsini, citizens from Viterbosuddenly attacked the anti-French cardinals, and took prisoners the two Orsini, carrying them away from the conclave and holding them in custody. The candidate of the French party was now elected pope under the name of Martin IV (22 February, 1281), whereupon Giordano was released, and afterwards Matteo Rosso. The instigator of the attack was excommunicated and the city of Viterbo placed under an interdict. When the news of the capture of the two Cardinals Orsini was received in Rome, great confusion ensued. Their relatives were driven from the city by the adherents of the Annibaldi, but were later recalled byMartin IV, with whom the Cardinals Orsini had become reconciled. During the conflict between Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair ofFrance, it was Cardinal Matteo who, having remained faithful to the persecuted pontiff, brought Boniface back to Rome after the attack of Anagni (1303). Cardinal Matteo attended the numerous conclaves held between 1254 and 1305, there being no less than thirteen. He died in Perugia in 1305 or 1306. His body was later transferred to Rome, where it lies in the Orsini Chapel in St. Peter's.
(2) NAPOLEONE ORSINI, son of Rinaldo, a brother of Pope Nicholas III, b. 1263; d. at Avignon, 24 March, 1342. In his youth he embraced the ecclesiastical state, was appointed papal chaplain by Honorius IV (1285-7), was created Cardinal Deacon of S. Adriano by Nicholas IV in May, 1288, and later, under Clement V was named archpriest of St. Peter's. Commissioned by Pope Boniface VIII, he brought Orvieto back to its submission to the Holy See, shortly after which the pope named him legate for Umbria, Spoleto, and the March of Ancona. In this capacity he left the Curia on 27 May, 1300, returning, however, on 28 May, 1301. During this time he had to combat various enemies of the Roman Church, and recovered the city of Gubbio for the pope. He was entrusted with his second papal legation by Clement V. Leaving Avignon, which was at that time the residence of theCuria, he set out on 8 March, 1306, for the Papal States with the commission to make peace between the parties which were everywhere at variance, and to bring back the various states of the Roman Church to their allegiance to the pope. This mission occupied more than three years, terminating on 12 June, 1309. Cardinal Napoleone played an important part during the political disturbances of the time. At first an opponent of the Colonna and their ambitions, he later became a promoter of French policy and entered into close relations with the French rulers. At the election of Clement V and John XXII he exercised a decisive influence, but subsequently became an enemy of the latter. He upheld the Franciscan Spirituals, and espoused the cause of KingLouis of Bavaria against the pope. A cardinal for fifty-four years, he took part in the election of seven popes (Celestine V toClement VI), on at least three of whom he placed the tiara. He is also known as an author, having written a biography of St. Clare of Montefalco.
(3) GIAN GAETANO ORSINI, prothonotary Apostolic, raised to the cardinalate by Pope John XXII in December, 1316; d. 1339 (or, according to some sources, 27 August, 1335). In 1326 he was sent to Italy as papal legate for certain lands belonging to thePapal States, and remained there until 1334. He endeavoured, though with little success, to bring back several rebellious states and vassals to their allegiance to the Apostolic See, excommunicated the obstinate Castruccio of Lucca and Bishop Guido Tarlato of Arezzo, as both supported the Visconti of Milan in their conflict against the pope, and, after the coronation of King Louis theBavarian in Rome in 1327, placed that city under an interdict. After the departure of the excommunicated emperor, the legateentered Rome with the army of King Robert of Naples, whereupon the people once more agreed to recognize the suzerainty of the pope. John XXII, however, refused to sanction the war undertaken by the cardinal legate against the Colonna, and ordered him to return to Tuscany. In November, 1328, he opened a campaign against the cities of Corneto and Viterbo, which submitted to the pope in the following year. The years between 1334 and his death he passed in Avignon.
(4) MATTEO ORSINI, d. probably on 18 August, 1340. He entered the Dominican Order, completed the full course of theology, obtained the Degree of Master, and taught theology at Paris, Florence, and Rome. He won great distinction by his zeal for the spread of the order, and was appointed provincial of the Roman province in 1322. In this capacity he became a member of the embassy deputed by the Romans to invite John XXII to transfer his residence to the Eternal City. On 20 October, 1326, the popenamed him Bishop of Girgenti (Sicily), but shortly after (15 June, 1327) transferred him to the archiepiscopal See of Liponto (Manfredonia, Southern Italy), made him Cardinal-Priest of S. Giovanni e Paolo on 18 December, 1327, and Cardinal-Bishop ofSabina on 18 December, 1338. He continued in various ways to promote the welfare of the Dominican Order, richly endowing the Convent of St. Dominic in Bologna.
(5) GIACOMO ORSINI, created cardinal-deacon by Gregory XI on 30 May, 1371, d. at Vicovaro or at Tagliacozzo, 1379. He was distinguished for his knowledge of the law. Appointed papal legate in Siena in 1376, he was a strong supporter of Gregory XI. In the conclave of 1378, he espoused the cause of Urban VI, but later attached himself to the antipope Clement VII.
(6) PONCELLO ORSINI, Bishop of Aversa (Southern Italy) from 19 June, 1370, d. 2 February, 1395. He was created cardinal-priestwith the title of St. Clement at the great consistory convoked by Urban VI on 28 September, 1378. He became papal legate, and at first worked zealously for the interests of Urban VI after the outbreak of the schism. Later, however, repelled by the impetuous procedure of the pope, he secretly left the Curia and took up his abode upon his own possessions. At the conclave of 1389, he was a candidate for the papacy. The new pope, Boniface IX, appointed him to important ecclesiastical offices, and he exercised great influence upon the Curia until his death.
(7) TOMMASO, of the line of the Counts of Manupello, raised to the cardinalate (1381) by Urban VI; d. 10 July, 1390. He was sent by the pope as legate to the Patrimony of the Marches, where Prince Rinaldo Orsini of Aquila and Tagliacozzo had seized the cities of Urbino and Spoleto in addition to other territory. The legate declared war against him and won back for the pope the cities of Narni, Ameli, Terni, and later also Viterbo. His conduct towards the Papal Vicar of Viterbo brought upon himself the disfavour of the pope, who imprisoned him in the fortress of Amelia, but later granted him his liberty. On the occasion of the conspiracy of several of the cardinals against Urban, Cardinal Orsini remained loyal to the pope. His relations were intimate withUrban's successor, Boniface IX, during whose pontificate he died.
(8) GIORDANO ORSINI, a very distinguished personality in the College of Cardinals in the first three decades of the fifteenth century, d. at Petricoli, 29 July, 1438. After a thorough and comprehensive training, he became Auditor of the Rota, and in February, 1400, was raised by Boniface IX to the Archiepiscopal See of Naples. On 12 June, 1405, Innocent VII made him a member of the College of Cardinals, at first with the title of St. Martino of Monti, and later with that of S. Lorenzo in Damaso. In 1412 he was appointed Cardinal-Bishop of Albano, and in 1431 Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina. He participated in the election ofGregory XII (1406), but later, with several other cardinals, renounced allegiance to the pope, against whom he published a tract. He assisted at the Council of Pisa, and took part in the election of the Pisan pope, Alexander V (1409), and of his successor John XXIII (Balthasar Cossa). The latter sent him as envoy to Spain, later appointing him papal legate to the Marches, in which position he was equally distinguished for his ability and prudence. He assisted zealously at the Council of Constance, and took part in the election of Martin V (1417). He was sent by this pope as legate to England and France, in company with CardinalFilastre, to make peace between the two countries. He was also selected for the difficult embassy to Bohemia and the neighboring countries (1426), where he was to combat the Hussite heresy. On this occasion he took with him as his secretary the future cardinal, Nicholas of Cusa. Upon his return, the pope entrusted to him another difficult task, namely the visitation and reform of the churches and ecclesiastical institutions of Rome. In the conclave of 1431 Eugene IV was elected pope. A close friendship existed between him and Giordano, and the latter supported him loyally and energetically during all the tryingconditions of the time. With two other cardinals, Giordano was commissioned to proceed against the usurpers of ecclesiasticalpossessions in Italy, after which he was delegated by the pope to attend the Council of Basle, where he exerted every effort to uphold the rights of the pope against the schismatic element in the council. We are indebted to him for a diary of this council. Later, as papal legate, he journeyed with Cardinal Conti to Siena to meet Emperor Sigismund on his way to Rome to receive the imperial crown. A man of wide culture, Giordano took an active part in the literary life of his time. Numerous and valuablemanuscripts were the result of his journeyings as legate, and these he willed to St. Peter's in Rome (cf. the catalogue ofmanuscripts in Cancellieri, "De secretariis basilicæ Vaticanæ", II, Rome, 1786, pp. 906-14). An Augustinian monastery was founded by him in Bracciano. He died dean of the College of Cardinals, and was buried in St. Peter's in a chapel founded andrichly endowed by him.
(9) LATINO ORSINI, likewise of the Roman branch of the family and the owner of rich possessions, b. 1411; d. 11 August, 1477. He entered the ranks of the Roman clergy as a youth, became subdeacon, and as early as 10 March, 1438, was raised to theEpiscopal See of Conza in Southern Italy. Transferred from this see to that of Trani (Southern Italy) on 8 June, 1439, he remained archbishop of the latter after his elevation to the cardinalate by Nicholas V on 20 December, 1448. On 4 December, 1454, the Archbishopric of Bari was conferred upon him, which made it possible for him to take up his residence in Rome, the See of Trani being given to his brother, John Orsini, Abbot of Farfa. Paul II appointed him legate for the Marches. Sixtus IV, for whoseelection in 1471 Cardinal Latino had worked energetically, named him camerlengo of the College of Cardinals, granted him in 1472 the Archdiocese of Taranto, which he governed by proxy, and, in addition, placed him at the head of the government of thePapal States. He was also appointed commander-in-chief of the papal fleet in the war against the Turks, and, acting for thepope, crowned Ferdinand King of Naples. He founded in Rome the monastery of S. Salvatore in Lauro, which he richly endowed and in which he established the canons regular, donating to it also numerous manuscripts. In the last years of his life he became deeply religious, though he had been worldly in his youth, leaving a natural son named Paul, whom, with the consent of the pope, he made heir of his vast possessions.
(10) GIAMBATTISTA ORSINI, nephew of Latino, d. 22 Feb., 1503. He entered the service of the Curia at an early age, became cameral cleric, canon of St. Peter's, and was elevated to the cardinalate by Sixtus IV in 1483. Innocent VIII conferred upon him in 1491 the Archiepiscopal See of Taranto, which he governed by proxy, and, as papal legate for Romagna, the Marches, andBologna, he was entrusted with the administration of these provinces of the Ecclesiastical States. In the conclave of 1492, theelection of Alexander VI was almost entirely due to him. However, Cardinal Giambattista, together with the head of the House ofOrsini, the Duke of Bracciano, having espoused the cause of the Florentines and the French in the Italian wars, was takenprisoner in the Vatican at the command of the pope and thrown into the dungeon of the Castel Sant' Angelo, where he died. The report was current that he had been poisoned by Alexander VI. Other cardinals of the family of Orsini who are worthy of mention because of the active part taken by them either as administrators of the papal states or as legates in other lands are the following:
(11) FLAVIO ORSINI, flourished in the sixteenth century, d. 16 May, 1581. He was created a cardinal in 1565, having been abishop since 1560, first of the See of Muro and later that of Spoleto. In 1572 he was sent by Gregory XIII as legate to Charles IX of France, principally to support this monarch in his conflict with the Huguenots.
(12) ALESSANDRO ORSINI, belonging to the ducal family of Bracciano, b. 1592; d. 22 August, 1626. He was brought up at the court of the Grand Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany, and in 1615 created a cardinal by Paul V. As Legate to Ravenna under Gregory XV, he distinguished himself in 1621 by his great charity on the occasion of the outbreak of a malignant pestilence. Upon his return to Rome, he devoted himself to religion and to the practice of an austere asceticism. He even begged permission of thepope to resign the cardinalate and to enter the Jesuit Order, but this was refused. Nevertheless, the pious cardinal always remained closely united to the Jesuits. He was a patron of Galileo.
(13) VIRGINIO ORSINI, likewise of the ducal family of Bracciano, b. 1615; d. 21 August, 1676. He renounced his birthright in his youth, entered the military order of the Knights of Malta, and more than once distinguished himself in the war against the Turksby his reckless bravery. In December, 1641, Urban VIII raised him to the dignity of cardinal, and appointed him Protector of thePolish as well as of the Portuguese Orient. He was commissioned to direct the building of the new fortifications with which Urban VIII enclosed the Leonine City and a quarter of Trastevere, and which are still in existence. In 1675 he became Cardinal Bishop ofFrascati, but died the next year, leaving behind him a reputation of a pious, gentle, and benevolent prince of the Church.
Other distinguished family members
In addition to the members of the Orsini family who were prominent as cardinals in the history of the Roman Church, others have gained a place in political history as statesmen, warriors, or patrons of the arts and sciences.
(1) ORSO DI BOBONE, nephew of Pope Celestine III (1191-8) and the first Orsini to hold a conspicuous place in Rome. Under the protection of his uncle, the pope, he was destined to have the principal part in laying the foundation of the dominion, power, and prestige of the Roman Orsini.
His grandchild, (2) MATTEO ROSSO ORSINI, was made senator of Rome by Pope Gregory IX in 1241. In this capacity he took a decided stand against the ventures of Emperor Frederick II in Italy. He was a patron of religious undertakings, a personal friend of St. Francis of Assisi, and a member of that saint's Third Order. While one of the sons of Matteo Rosso, Gian Gaetano, ascended the papal throne as Nicholas III, another, (3) RINALDO, continued the activities of his father in the political field, exerting himself to the utmost to prevent the alliance of Rome with the Hohenstaufen Konradin.
A son of this Rinaldo, (4) MATTEO ORSINI, was twice senator in Rome. His wise and energetic uncle, Nicholas III, to show thatpapal rule was once more dominant in Rome, deprived King Charles of Anjou of the senatorial dignity, and in 1278 published thedecree that thenceforth no foreign emperor or king could become a senator, a Roman being alone eligible for the dignity, and then only with the consent of the pope and for one year. The power of the Orsini was in general much strengthened by this capable pope of their race.
In the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the following were particularly famous as military leaders in the numberless internal wars of Italy; (5) PAOLO ORSINI, who in the beginning of the fifteenth century fought as condottiere in the service of several popes, was taken prisoner by Ladislas of Naples, again set at liberty, and fell in battle against Braccio da Montone before Perugia on 5 July, 1416.
(6) VIRGINIO ORSINO, Lord of Bracciano, was leader of the forces of Sixtus IV (1471-84) in the war against Ferrara, and victor at the battle of Campo Morto against the Neapolitans (1482). Later, however, he entered the service of Naples to oppose King Charles VIII of France (1483-98); in 1494, however, he took the side of the latter, and was imprisoned on this account. He died on 18 January, 1497, in prison at Naples.
(7) NICCOLO ORSINI, Count of Petigliano, was, at this time, in the service of the Anjous, military leader in the war againstNaples, Sixtus IV, Siena, Florence, and Venice. Later, however, he went over with his army to the Venetian standard, and became general-in-chief of the Venetian Republic in the war against the League of Cambrai. He captured Padua, but was defeated in 1509, and died the following year.
Of the members of the Orsini family who flourished during the sixteenth century (8) PAOLO GIORDANO ORSINI is also worthy of mention. Born in 1541, he was created a duke, with the title of Bracciano, by Pope Pius IV (1560). Under Paul IV, he was general of the papal troops in the war against the Turks (1566). His first wife, Isabella Medici, being murdered, he took as his second wife Vittoria Accoramboni, widow of the murdered Francesco Peretti, a nephew of Sixtus V. Accused of murdering the latter, Paolo Giordano was obliged to leave Rome. He died at Salo in 1585.
(9) FULVIO ORSINI was distinguished as a humanist, historian, and archeologist, b. on 11 December, 1529; d. in Rome, 18 May, 1600. He was the natural son probably of Maerbale Orsini of the line of Mugnano. Cast off by his father at the age of nine, he found a refuge among the choir boys of St. John Lateran, and a protector in Canon Gentile Delfini. He applied himself energetically to the study of the ancient languages, published a new edition of Arnobius (Rome, 1583) and of the Septuagint(Rome, 1587), and wrote works dealing with the history of Rome — "Familiæ Romanæ ex antiquis numismatibus" (Rome, 1577), "Fragmenta historicorum" (Antwerp, 1595), etc. He brought together a large collection of antiquities, and built up a costly libraryof manuscripts and books, which later became part of the Vatican library (cf. de Nolhac, "La bibliothèque de Fulvio Orsini", Paris, 1887). A woman of the Orsini family likewise played an important political role in the seventeenth century: MARIE ANNE, née de laTrémoille, b. 1642. Her first husband was Talleyrand, Prince de Chalais, after whose death she married Flavio Orsini, Duke of Bracciano, who remained loyal to Pope Innocent XI in his difficulties with Louis XIV of France. Marie Anne used her influence with the Curia in the interests of France and of Louis XIV, and in 1701, after the death of her husband, went to Madrid as mistress of the robes to Queen Marie-Louise, who, together with her husband Philip V of Spain, was completely under her influence. She did much to strengthen the throne of these rulers, but, nevertheless, in 1714 when Philip married Elizabeth Farnese, she was dismissed with ingratitude and returned to Rome, where she died on 5 December, 1722 (see Hill, "The Princess Orsini", London, 1899). The ancient family of the Roman Orsini is extinct. The present princes of the family in Rome descend from the Neapolitanline, which may be traced back to Francesco Orsini, Count of Trani and Conversano. In 1463 they became Dukes of Gravina, later (1724) princes of the Empire and Roman princes. The head of the family always enjoys the dignity of assistant at the papalthrone. The present head is Filippo Orsini-Gravina-Sarzina, b. 10 December, 1842. Several noble families outside of Italy trace back their descent to the ancient Italian Orsini, as for example the Juvenels des Ursins in France and the Rosenbergs in Austriaand Germany.
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The Orsini family is an Italian noble family; it was one of the most influential princely families in medieval Italy and renaissance Rome. Members of the Orsini include popes Celestine III (1191–1198), Nicholas III (1277–1280), and Benedict XIII (1724–1730), 34 Cardinals of the Roman Church and numerous condottieri and other significant political and religious figures.
The Orsini were related to the Boboni family existing in Rome in the 11th century. The first members always used the surname of Boboni-Orsini. The first known family member is one Bobone, in the early 11th century, father of Pietro, in turn father of Giacinto dei Boboni (1110–1198), who in 1191 became pope as Celestine III. One of the first great nepotist popes, he made two of his nephews cardinals and allowed his cousin Giovanni Gaetano (Giangaetano, died 1232) to buy the fiefs of Vicovaro, Licenza, Roccagiovine and Nettuno, which formed the nucleus of the future territorial power of the family. The Boboni surname was lost with his children, who were called de domo filiorum Ursi. Two of them, Napoleone and Matteo Rosso the Great (1178–1246) considerably increased the prestige of the family. The former was the founder of the first southern line, which disappeared with Camillo Pardo in 1553. He obtained the city of Manoppello, later a countship, and was gonfaloniere of the Papal States. Matteo Rosso, called the Great, was the effective lord of Rome from 1241, when he defeated the Imperial troops, to 1243, holding the title of Senator. Two of his sons and Napoleone were also Senators. Matteo ousted the traditional rivals, the Colonna, from Rome and extended the Orsini territories southwards up to Avellino and northwards to Pitigliano. During his life the family entered firmly in the Guelphparty. He had some ten sons, which divided the fiefs after his deaths: Gentile (died 1246) originated the Pitigliano line and the second southern line. Rinaldo that of Monterotondo, Napoleone (died 1267) that of Bracciano and another Matteo Rosso that of Montegiordano, from the name of the district in Rome housing the family's fortress. The most distinguished of his sons was however Giovanni Gaetano (died 1280): elected pope as Nicholas III, he named the nephew Bertoldo (died 1289) as count of Romagna and had two nephews and a brother created cardinals.
The second southern line
The rise of the Orsini did not stop after Nicholas' death. Bertoldo's son, Gentile II (1250–1318), was two times Senator of Rome, podestà ofViterbo and, from 1314, Gran Giustiziere ("Great Justicer") of the Kingdom of Naples. He married Clarice Ruffo, daughter of the counts ofCatanzaro, forming an alliance of the most powerful Calabrian dynasty. His son Romano (1268–1327), called Romanello, was Royal Vicar of Rome in 1326, and inherited the countship of Soana through his marriage with Anastasia de Montfort, Countess of Nola. Romano's stance was markedly Guelph. After his death, his two sons divided his fiefs, forming the Pitigliano and the second southern line.
Roberto (1295–1345), Gentile II's grandson, married Sibilla del Balzo, daughter of the Great Senechal of the Kingdom of Naples. Among his sons, Giacomo (died 1379) was created cardinal by Gregory XI in 1371, while Nicola (August 27, 1331 – February 14, 1399) obtained the counties of Ariano and Celano. The latter was also Senator of Rome and enlarged the family territories in Lazio and Tuscany.
His second son, Raimondello Orsini del Balzo, supported Charles III' coup d'état in Naples against Queen Joan I. Under king Ladislaus he was among the few Neapolitan feudataries who were able to maintain their territorial power after the royal war against them. However, at his death in 1406 the southern Orsini fiefs were confiscated. Relationships with the royal family remained cold under Joan II; However, when Raimondello's son Giannantonio (1386–1453) sent his troops to help her against the usurpation attempt of James of Bourbon, he received in exchange thePrincipality of Taranto.
The links with the court increased further under Sergianni Caracciolo, Joan's lover and Great Senechal. A younger brother of Giannantonio married one of Sergianni's daughters. However, the Orsini changed side when Alfonso V of Aragon started his conquest of the Kingdom of Naples. Giannantonio was awarded with the duchy of Bari, the position of Great Connestable and an appanage of 100,000 ducati. Giannantonio remained faithful to Alfonso's heir, Ferdinand I, but was killed during a revolt of nobles. Having died without legitimate sons, much of his possessions were absorbed into the Royal Chamber.
This line was initiated by Guido Orsini, second son of Romano, who inherited the county of Soana. He and his descendants ruled over the fiefs of Soana, Pitigliano and Nola, but in the early 15th century wars against the Republic of Siena and the Colonnas caused to lost of several territories. Bertoldo (died 1417) managed to keep only Pitigliano, while his grandson Orso (died July 5, 1479) was count of Nola and fought as condottiero under the Duke of Milan and the Republic of Venice. Later he passed to the service of Ferdinand I of Naples, but, not having taken part in the Barons' conjure, he was rewarded with the fiefs of Ascoli and Atripalda. He took part in the Aragonese campaign in Tuscany and was killed at the siege of Viterbo.
The most outstanding member of the Pitigliano line was Niccolò, one of the major condottieri of the time. His son Ludovico (died January 27, 1534) and his nephew Enrico (died 1528) participated in the Italian Wars at the service of both France and Spain, often changing side with the typical ease of the Italian military leaders of the time. Two of Ludovico's daughters married to relevant figures: Geronima to Pier Luigi Farnese, illegitimate son of Pope Paul III and Marzia to Gian Giacomo Medici of Marignano, an important general of the Spanish army.
The line started to decay after the loss of Nola by Ludovico, who was also forced to accept the Senese suzerainty over Pitigliano. Under his son Giovan Francesco (died May 8, 1567) the county entered the orbit of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Later, the attempt of Alessandro (died February 9, 1604) to obtain the title of Monterotondo was thwarted by Pope Gregory XIII. His son Giannantonio (March 25, 1569 – 1613) sold Pitigliano to Tuscany, in exchange for the marquisate of Monte San Savino.
The line became extinct in 1640 with the death of Alessandro.
This line was founded by Rinaldo, third son of Matteo Rosso the Great. His son, Napoleone, became a cardinal in 1288 and remained a prominent member of the Curia until his death at Avignon in 1342.
This branch of the family was often involved in the baronal struggles of the Late Middle Ages Rome, at least three members of the family being elected as Senators, while others foughts as condottieri. Francesco in 1370 took part to the war of Florence against the Visconti of Milan. Orso (died July 24, 1424) died fighting for the king of Naples in the Battle of Zagonara against the Milanese. His sons Giacomo (died 1482) and Lorenzo (1452) battled for the Papal States, Naples and Florence. One of Giacomo's daughters, Clarice (1453–July 30, 1488) became Lorenzo de' Medici's wife. Franciotto Orsini was created cardinal by Leo X in 1517.
The most important member of the Monterotondo Orsinis was Giovani Battista Orsini, who became cardinal under Sixtus IV (1483). He was probably among the promoters of the failed plot against Cesare Borgia in 1502, being assassinated as retaliation, together with numerous members of the family.
The line decayed from the late 16th century, when several members were assassinated or lost their lands for various reasons. Its last representants Enrico (died September 12, 1643) and Francesco (1592 - September 21, 1650) sold Monterotondo to the Barberini in 1641.
Napoleone, another son of Matteo Rosso the Great, received Bracciano, Nerola and other lands in what is now northern Lazio. In 1259 he was Senator of Rome. Thanks to the strategic positions of their fiefs, and to their famous castle built in Bracciano in 1426, they were the most powerful Orsini line in the Lazio. Count Carlo (died after 1485), son of another Napoleone(died October 3, 1480), was Papal Gonfaloniere. By his marriage with a Francesca Orsini of Monterotondo was born Gentile Virginio Orsini, one of the most relevant figures of Italian politics in the late 15th century. After Carlo's death, he enlarged the family's tenure with lands inherited by his wife, another Orsini from Salerno, and most of all he was amongst the favourites of Ferdinand I of Naples, who appointed him as Great Connestable of Naples. Together with his cousin, the Cardinal Giovanni Battista, he was among the fiercest opposers of popes Innocent VIII and Alexander VI. In 1492 Gentile Virginio bought the county of Anguillara from Franceschetto Cybo.
During Charles VIII of France's descent into Italy, he managed to keep Bracciano by fighting without too much dogging against him. Ferdinand II had his fiefs confiscated and imprisoned him in Castel dell'Ovo, where he was poisoned in 1497. The family recovered this setback under the more friendly Medici popes of the early 16th century. His son Giangiordano wasPrince Assistant to the Papal Throne. His son Virginio was a famous admiral for the Papal States and France, but in 1539 he had his fiefs confiscated under the charge of treason.
Paolo Giordano was created first Duke of Bracciano in 1560. An accomplished condottiero, he was however also a ruthless figure who had his wife Isabella de' Medici murdered. For this and other homicides he had to flee to northern Italy. He was succeeded by Virginio, whose heir Paolo Giordano II married the princess of Piombino and was created Prince of the Holy Roman Empire. His brother Alessandro was cardinal and Papal legate, and another brother, Ferdinando (died March 4, 1660) acquired the assets of the other line of San Gemini. In the 17th century the Dukes of Bracciano moved their residence to Rome. This, along with a general economical decadence, damaged the dukedom, and last Duke and Prince, Flavio (March 4, 1620 – April 5, 1698) was forced by the huge debts to sell it to the Odescalchi and others.
The line of Gravina, from the name of the eponymous city in Apulia, is the only existing line of the Orsini. It descends from Francesco (died 1456), a son of Count Carlo of Bracciano. Most of his fief were located in northern Lazio, but he entered in the Neapolitan orbit when in 1418 he was called by Sergianni Caracciolo to fight against the Angevine troops, which he defeated. By marriage, he obtained the title of count of Gravina. He was made Duke of Gravina by King Alfonso, title definitely assigned to his son Giacomo (died 1472), to which had been added the counties of Conversano, Campagna and Copertino. Two of Francesco's son, Marino (died 1471) and Giovanni Battista (died June 8, 1476), were respectively archbishop of Taranto and Grand Master of Knights of Rhodes.
The fourth duke, Francesco, was strangled by Cesare Borgia in 1503. One of his nephews, Flavio Orsini, was created cardinal in 1565. The fifth duke, Ferdinando (died December 6, 1549) had all his fiefs confiscated by the Spaniards, but regained it after a 40,000 scudi payment.
After the heirless death of Duke Michele Antonio (January 26, 1627), his lands passed to his cousin Pietro Orsini, count of Muro Lucano (died 1641). The latter's nephew Pier Francesco, who had renounced to the succession in favour to his brother Domenico to became a Dominican, was later elected pope with the name of Benedict XIII.
His successor raised Benedict XIII's nephew, Prince Beroaldo Orsini, to the dignity of Prince Assistants to the Papal Throne (title held until 1958), after the emperor Charles VI had already, in 1724, made him a prince of the Holy Roman Empire. The last cardinal from the family was Domenico.
The family moved to Rome in the 18th century, where Duke Domenico (November 23, 1790 – April 28, 1874), married Maria Luisa Torlonia in 1823. In 1850 he was Minister of War and General Lieutenant of the Papal Armies, and, also, Senator of Rome.
The remaining Princely family is represented by Prince Domenico Napoleone Orsini d'Aragona, Duke of Gravina (b. 1948). With no male heirs, he is currently to be succeeded as Duke of Gravina by his unmarried brother Benedetto (b. 1956), then by his cousin Don Raimondo Orsini d'Aragona (b. 1931), whose heir is Don Lelio Orsini (b. 1981).
An Austrian princely family, the Rosenberg changed its name to Ursini-Rosenberg (and subsequently to Orsini-Rosenberg) in 1683, while creating spurious claims of kinship to the Orsini, which were regarded at the time as more prestigious. No convincing evidence of the link was ever brought, and as such many researchers consider it fictional.
Apart from the Bracciano castle, other notable buildings and structures associated with the Orsini include:
- The Bomarzo Garden, a Late Renaissance-Mannerist gallery of bizarre sculptures and architecture commissioned in the 16th century byVicino Orsini. It includes also a palace, designed by Baldassarre Peruzzi, begun in 1525 by Gian Corrado Orsini and finished by his son Vicino.
- The Orsini Palace in Rome, including the Theatre of Marcellus.
- Palazzo Orsini Pio Righetti, also in Rome.
- Orsini Castles in: